Essence Jing

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According to the understanding of the medical doctors and qigong masters of various generations, essence (jing) can be classified as congenital and acquired.

(1) Congenital Essence (Primordial Essence)

Inherited from parents, congenital essence constitutes the original substances of the human body, being the material basis for growth, development and reproduction. Ling Shu - Jing Mai (Miraculous Pivot - Channels and Vessels) says, "Essence exists at the beginning of life".

(2) Acquired Essence

It refers to essence derived from food. The spleen and stomach transform food into essence and then transport it through the channels and vessels to nourish the five viscera (solid organs) and irrigate the six fu—organs (hollow organs). Acquired essence is the material basis for the functional activities. Infused into the internal organs, it is called in traditional Chinese medicine "essence from the five viscera and six hollow organs".

Congenital and acquired essence are interdependent and mutual promotive. Only with the nourishment of the acquired, can the congenital be enriched and play its role. On the other hand, without the function of the congenital, the acquired can by no means be transformed.

Much emphasis is laid on the role of essence in qigong therapy. A common practice is called "transforming essence into qi", which requires painstaking effort of the practitioner in — 42 —

training. To raise the quality of training, one should abide by the principle of being moderate in sexual life in order to preserve essence (turbid essence).

2. Vital Energy (Qi)

As it is the basic substance and the dynamic force for maintaining normal life activities of the human body, vital energy (qi) implicates two aspects, material and functional. It is also classied into congenital and acquired. Congenital vital energy (qi) is also named primordial vital energy (qi), which is inherited from parents and derived from congenital essence. Acquired vital energy (qi) refers to the combination of the pure vital energy (qi) one receives from air and the food essence transformed into by the spleen and stomach. In the light of its distribution and function, vital energy (qi) can be further divided into four kinds: primordial qi, pectoral qi, nourishing qi and defensive qi.

Also called original qi, congenital qi, kidney-qi and genuine qi, this kind of qi includes congenital yang-qi and yin—qi. It is innate or inborn, and is the original motive force for maintaining the normal growth and development of the human body and for activating and promoting the functional activities of the internal organs. This is what Ling Shu - Ci Jie Zhen Xie (Miraculous Pivot — Acupuncture in Regulation of the Healthy and Pathogenic Factors) says, "The genuine qi is obtained from Heaven and is combined with food essence to nourish the body".

Pectoral qi is a combination of the fresh air inhaled by the

lung and the food essence derived by the spleen and stomach from food. It is formed in the lung and accumulated in the chest,bearing the function of helping the lung in respiration and assisting the heart in blood circulation. So it is stated in Ling Shu - Ci Jie Zhen Xie (Miraculous Pivot - Acupuncture in Regulation of the Healthy and Pathogenic Factors), "If pectoral qi fails to descend, blood in the vessels will congeal and stagnate".

(3) Nourishing Qi (Ying-qi)

Nourishing qi is one kind of the substances derived from food essence. It enters the vessels to join the blood as one component and, as the name implies, produces blood and nourishes the wl|ole body along with the circulation of blood.

Defensive qi is one part of the substances composing yang—qi (positive qi) of the human body. It originates in the Lower—jiao (the Lower Warmer), is enriched in the Middle-jiao (the Middle Warmer) and distributed in the Upper-jiao. It is innate, coming from yang-qi (positive qi) stored in the kidney, as the saying holds, "Defensive qi comes from the Lower-jiao". In the process of its functional activities, it relies on the continuous replenishment of food essence in the Middle—jiao. Defensive qi circulates not inside but outside and along the channels and vessels to all parts of the body to warm and nourish the internal organs and the skin and hair, and to regulate the opening and closing of the points and sweat pores.

This kind of qi is called "internal qi" or "external qi" (outgoing-qi) of qigong. It is a combination of primordial qi, — 44 —

pectoral qi, nourishing qi and defensive qi, which, through practice of the three regulations (posture, respiration and mind concentration), develops its special function with increased energy, and can gather, disperse and conduct exchanges with qi outside the body.

1) Qi and Qi Field

After qi of qigong has been trained and refined, it will become strong and be able to circulate inside the body, forming a certain "field" as that formed by the flow of electricity. It can exchange with, response to and activate qi of nature. Everyone has qi and his own qi field; the individual difference lies in the degree of perception to qi and the amount of its energy. The direction, intensity and frequency of the flow of the internal and external qi influence the physiological activities of the human body all the time.

There exists a regular system of internal qi within the human body, which is composed mainly by channels, collaterals and their points. This internal qi system is closely related to the thinking activities of the brain. Though it can not be observed by the eyes through anatomy as can be done for internal organs, nerves, muscles and other tissues under modern conditions of scientific experiment, the shape, nature, rhythm, direction and tensity of this system as well as of the internal and external qi can be perceived by the qigong adept who is especially sensitive to perception of qi. And because of this, Li Shizhen, a distinquished pharmacologist and scientist of the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) holds in his book Qi Jing Ba Mai Kao(Re-search on the Eight Extra- Channels), "The inner scene and channels can only be perceived by those who can see things by


2) The Circulation of Qi

Internal qi circulates in the channels and collaterals in the direction of the course of the Twelve Channels, being in order and interior-exteriorly related to them. The course of the Twelve Regular Channel is.- the Three Yin Channels of Hand run from the chest to the hand, the Three Yang Channels of Hand from the hand to the head, the Three Yang Channels of Foot from the head to the foot, and the Three Yin Channels of Foot from the foot to the abdomen and chest (Fig. 2-2).

Through training of the three regulations, the internal qi will be able to circulate not only along the course of the lIi iiuiels, but also against them or along several channels at the same time toward one direction to one area and, inducting or being inducted by qi of the natural world, to form a qi field. For example, if the right side of the body is yang (positive) and the left is yin (negative), the ascending of qi at the left and descending of it at the right with response to qi of the natural world will form a left—descending and right- ascending qi field outside the body (Fig. 2-3).

and Yang Channels
External Control

Fig. 2-3 The Qi Field of the Human Body

External qi refers to the outgoing internal qi emitted by the experienced qigong practitioner under the control of his will. This kind of qi takes form and changes its shape, nature, circulating direction and frequency following the will of the practitioner.

3) The Characteristics of Qi

The following characteristics are summarized based on the conclusion made by the ancients and the author ' s personal experiences in practice, observation and experimental studies.

Universality-. Zhang Jiebin of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) held in his book Lei Jing Tu Yi - Yiyi (Illustrated.

Fig. 2-3 The Qi Field of the Human Body

External qi refers to the outgoing internal qi emitted by the experienced qigong practitioner under the control of his will. This kind of qi takes form and changes its shape, nature, circulating direction and frequency following the will of the practitioner.

3) The Characteristics of Qi

The following characteristics are summarized based on the conclusion made by the ancients and the author ' s personal experiences in practice, observation and experimental studies.

Universality-. Zhang Jiebin of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) held in his book Lei Jing Tu Yi - Yiyi (Illustrated.

Supplementary to the Classified Canon — Application of the Book of Changes to Medicine) that " Qi of Heaven is that of man; the body of man is that of Heaven". Similar remarks were made by Tang Rongchuan of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) in his book Yiyi Tong Lun (A General Treatise on the Application of the Book of Changes to Medicine), saying, "All things in the universe that rely on qi for their growth originate from qi of the congenital divinatory diagrams". These statements explain that qi is a kind of substance existing all over the cosmos and in all animals and plants of the natural world. It is generated from and influenced by qi of Heaven and Earth.

Systematism• Lei Jing Tu Yi - Yiyi (Illustrated Supplementary tq the Classied Canon - The Application of the Book of Changes to Medicine) by Zhang Jiebin says, " Qi of Heaven is that of man. ... The human body is a small universe" . This means qi of Heaven, Earth and man is not only inter—linked, but also exists as a system within the human body - " a small universe". Like the respiratory, circulatory and digestive systems, the system of qi has its own organizational structure and law of activity, bearing the responsibility of regulating the functions of the organs and tissues and the adaptability to the outside environment of qi, so as to absorb qi beneficial to the human body and expel that harmful to it.

Transmissibility-. Qi has the nature of extending, disseminating, diffusing and flowing. It circulates endlessly and periodically.

Excitation-. When the outgoing-qi of the therapist acts on the channels and points of the patient, it can stimulate and activate the patient's muscles and tissues to arouse movement — 48 —

and sensation, which may last for a certain period of time.

Synchronism-. Qi posseses the nature of synchronism. When the frequency and nature of outgoing—qi are similar to those of the patient' s qi, resonance and synchonism may be triggered and the patient' s qi activities can be activated and regulated rapidly. In patiens or practitioners who are not so sensitive to qi, this reflect may also be obtained after repeated treatment with outgoing qi or after some qigong practice.

Sensitivity ■. People vary in sensitivity to qi. Those with high sensitivity may receive outgoing-qi immediately or be liable to be influenced by qi of animals, plants and other things of the outside world. Those with low sensitivity may have difficulty to perceive qi. And in some, though they do not perceive qi, they may be influenced by qi all the same.

Controlment ■. Qi of the human body can be controlled. This is easy for the adept of qigong. However it is not all the case. As mentioned in Ling Shu - Jiu Zhen Shi Er Yuan (Miraculous Pivot—Nine Kinds of Needles and Twelve Source-points) " He who understands the pivot of qi can regulate qi readily, while he who does not understand the pivot can not regulate qi at all".

Spirit, or vitality, is a general term for the life processes of the human body. It refers to the appearance of mentality, consciousness and the external conditions of essence (jing) and vital energy (qi) of the internal organs. The life activity of the human body depends on essence (jing) and vital energy (qi) as its material basis. It can be said that spirit is developed from essence and qi. For example, Ling Shu - Ben Shen (Miraculous

Pivot - The Original Spirit) says, "The intercourse between two kinds of essence produces spirit". Ling Shu - Ping Ren Jue Gu (Miraculous Pivot - The Fast by Normal Man) holds that "Spirit is the essence of grain and water (food)" - So, that which derives from congenital essence is taken as yuan shen (primordial spirit or mentality), which further develops with the nourishment of the essence of food, while that which bears thinking and conciousness is taken as shi shen (perceptual spirit).

4. The Relationship between Essence, Vital Energy and Spirit and qigong Practice

Shou Shi Chuan Zhen (Portraiture of Longevity) written by Xu Wenbi of the Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911) states, "Essence is what nourishes the body; qi is what circulates throughout the body; and spirit is what governs the body" . And "Primordial essence is innate true essence, not reproductive essence; primordial qi is energy in the void, not inhaled air; and primordial spirit is original soul, not that of thinking. The so—called primordial essence, primordial vital energy and primordial spirit are those congenital which originate before birth, while the productive essence (turbid essence), air inhaled and thinking and consciousness (perceptual spirit) are acquired, which develop after birth".

The concept of essence, vital energy and spirit is different. However, they are inter-linked and mutual promotive. Of the three, essence is fundamental, vital energy is motive and spirit is dominant.

The training and regulating of essence, vital energy and spirit are of great importance in qigong practice and outgoing-qi therapy. There existed in ancient times methods of accumulating and refining essence, invigorating and regulating qi and preserving spirit, which are commonly called " refining essence into qi" , " refining qi into spirit" and the like. Specificaly speaking, qigong practice is to train the acquired turbid essence, the perceptual spirit and the inhaled air in order to replenish the primordial so that life can be prolonged and diseases can be prevented and cured.

The Channels and Collaterals

Channels and collaterals are the passageways or routes by which the points per se, the points and internal organs, the internal organs and sense organs (eye, ear, nose, tongue, etc.), and the internal organs per se are interlinked with each other. Only by circulating along the channels and collaterals and linking with qi of the outside world through the skin and points, can the human qi play its normal role. The passageways of the channels and collaterals, together with the function of qi, constitute a particular channel-qi system within the human body, a system according to which and on which outgoing-qi therapy is carrird out so that qi activities can be facilitated, dredged and regulated, and evil—qi can be expelled.

The network of channels and collaterals consists of channels, collaterals and their affiliated parts such as tendon channels and skin zones. Channels include the Twelve Regular Channels running through the muscles and flesh of the body, the twelve branches of the regular channels and the Eight Extra Channels not being considered as regular. The collaterals refer to the Fifteen Reticular Branch Conduits of Channels (All the Twelve Regular Channels, the Du Channel, the Ren Channel and the Great Reticular Conduit of the Spleen have one of these conduits), the horizontal collaterals and the minute collaterals. The Twelve Tendon Channels do not run into the internal organs, while the Twelve Skin Zones are linked only to the channels. All these constitute a communicative network within the body and between the body and the outside world.

1. The Twelve Regular Channels

As the Three Yin Channels and Three Yang Channels of Hand and Foot are the principal part of the channel doctrine, they are given the name of "The Twelve Regular Channels", which include the Lung Channel of Hand-Taiyin, the Heart Channel of Hand-Shaoyin, the Pericardium Channel of Hand-Jueyin (the Three Yin Channels of Hand); the Large Intestine Channel of Hand-Yangming, the Small Intestine Channel of Hand-Taiyang, the Sanjiao Channel of Hand-Shaoyang (the Three Yang Channels of Hand); the Spleen Channel of Foot—Taiyin, the Kidney Channel of Foot-Shaoyin, the Liver Channel of Foot-Jueyin (the Three Yin Channels of Foot); and the Stomach Channel of Foot—Yangming, the Urinary Bladder Channel of Foot-Taiyang, the Gallbladder Channel of Foot-Shaoyang (the Three Yang Channels of Foot).

At the extremities, the yin channels run along the medical aspect, while the yang channel along the lateral aspect. As the medial aspect of the extremities are divided into anterior, middle and posterior sides, the yin channels running along these sides are called Taiyin, Jueyin and Shaoyin respectively. The — 52 —

lateral aspect is also divided into the above three sides, and the yang channels running along them are called yangming, shaoyang and taiyang accordingly. At the torso and head, the three yang channels of hand and foot are distributed along the anterior, lateral and posterior sides of the head and torso, while the three yin along the chest and abdomen (Fig. 2-4).

Each of the Twelve Regular Channels pertains to a certain viscerum. The yang channels pertain to the hollow organs and communicated with the solid while the yin channels pertain to the solid and communicated with the hollow. This forms an interior-exterior (yin-yang) relationship of communication. All the channels are inter—linked with each other and bear the responsibility of a thorougfare, along which spread the points-

the locations for qi and blood to circulate to the surface of the body.

The motion of qi and blood within the Twelve Regular Channels is circulative and continuous, starting from the Lung Channel of Hand-Taiyin, passing through all the others to the last--the Liver Channel of Foot-Jueyin, and then to the

Lung Channel of Hand-Taiyin again to restart the cycle. The terminus of one channel connects with the starting point of another, forming an endless cycle in the order of: the Lung Channel of Hand-Taiyin -*■ the Large intestine Channel of Hand-Yangming -»-the Stomach Channel of Foot-Yangming -»the Spleen Channel of Foot-Taiyin »-the Heart Channel of Hand-Shaoyin -*- the Small Intestine Channel of Hand-Taiyang the Urinary Bladder Channel of Foot-Taiyang »the Kidney Channel of Foot—Shaoyin »the Pericardium Channel of Hand-Jueyin,-*- the Sanjiao Channel of Hand-Shaoyang -*• the Gallbladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang — the Liver Channel of Foot-Jueyin the Lung Channel of Hand Taiyin.

Pranic Therapy Diagrams
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Hi, l.aiw lnir-mu- Chanm-I <i| Hand Y;m^tiHi>K

i lu- i iallblaikk-i Chaimd oi F;>.ii-Shan\au>{

Kami Sli.iuuin«

Hi, l.aiw lnir-mu- Chanm-I <i| Hand Y;m^tiHi>K

i lu- i iallblaikk-i Chaimd oi F;>.ii-Shan\au>{

iho S|jloi*i) CtianiK'i "I Fcul Tatyin iho j.uitM Channel

.1 Hand laiv iho S|jloi*i) CtianiK'i "I Fcul Tatyin

Fig. 2-4 The Distribution of the Fourteen Channels

2 The Eight Extra Channels

"The Eight Extra Channels" is a general term for the Du, Ren, Chong, Dai, Yinwei, Yangwei, Yinqiao and Yangqiao Channels. They have neither direct connection nor interior-exterior relationship with the internal organs. Generally speaking, their physiological function is to regulate qi and blood of the Twelve Regular Channels.

(1) The Du Channel

The Du Channel is regarded as "the sea of yang channels" because it governs all the yang channels of the body. It originates in the lower part of the abdomen, makes its downward way through the perineum, and then ascends along the middle of the spinal column to the brain, where it continues to ascend to the vertex and descend along the midline of the head to the apex of nose, then the point Renzhong (Du 26) and lastly the

(2) The Ren Channel

As it takes charge of all the yin channels of the body, it is regarded as " the sea of yin channels". The Ren Channel originates in the lower abdomen, descrads through the perineum, then ascends along the midline of the abdomen and chest to the throat and the mandible, where it separates into two branches which turn so round the mouth and up to the inferior regions of the eyes [see Fig. 2-4(1)].

(3) The Chong Channel

The Chong Channel extends to the anterior, posterior, upper and lower part of the body, and is able to regulate qi and blood of the Twelve Regular Channels, so it is termed "the sea of the Twelve Regular Channels". This channel originates in the lower abdomen, descends and emerges at the perineum, and then ascends through the spinal column. The superficial branch of it passes through the point Qichong (St 30), meets the Kidney Channel of Foot-Shaoyin, and ascends along both sides of the umbilicus to the throat, where it goes round the lips (Fig. 2-5).

(4) The Dai Channel (The Belt Channel)

Running transversely round the waist like a belt, the Dai Channel binds and joints all the channels of the body. It starts from the lower border of the hypochondrium and runs transversely round the waist (Fig. 2-6).

Fig. 2-5 The Chong Channel Fig. 2-6 The Dai Channel (5) The Yinwei Channel The Yinwei Channel lies in the interior and serves to maintain and communicate all the yin channels in the interior of the body. This channel starts from Zhubin (K 9, a point of the Kidney Channel running along the medial aspect of the shank), ascends along the midline of the internal aspect of the lower extremities to the lower abdomen, where it passes Fushe (Sp 13) F'g-2-7 The Yingwei Channel and Daheng (Sp 15) and the ribs to Qimen (Liv 14, a point of the Liver Channel) up to the chest. It then turns to go obliquely to the neck to join the points Tiantu (Ren 22) and Lianquan (Ren 23) (Fig. 2-7).

(6) The Yangwei Channel

The Yangwei Channel lies superficially and serves to maintain and communicate the superficial yang channels of the body. The channel starts from Jinmen (UB 63) of the Urinary Bladder Channel, goes upward to Yangjiao (UB 35) of the Gallbladder Channel, ascends along this channel to Bishu (a point inferior to the iliac crest) and then along the posterior aspect of the libs to the posterior end of the axillary fold, then the shoulder upwards to meet the points Yamen (Du 15), Fengfu (Du-16) and Fengchi (GB 20), where it ascends along the Gallbladder Channel to the vertex, and ends at Yangbai (GB 14) (Fig. 2-8).

(7) The Yinqiao Channel

This channel controls the yin of the left and right sides of the body. It originates from the point Rangu (K 2) at the medial side of the foot, passes through Zhaohai (K 6) to the superior borber of the medial malleolus, where it ascends along the medial aspect of the lower limb, passes through the perineum, the adbdomen and chest to Quepen (St 12). Then it continues its way and passes the anterior aspect of Renying (St 9) and the medial side of the zygomatic region and reaches the inner canthus of the eye, where it meets with the Channel of Hand-Taiyang and the Yangqiao Channel (Fig. 2-9).

Fig. 2—8 The Yangwei Channel (8) The Yangqiao Channel This channel controls the yang of the left and right sides of the body. It originates at the point Shenmai (UB 62) below the external malleolus, makes its way upward along the lateral aspect of the lower limb to Juliao (femur, UB 29), which is located above the iliac bone, to the posterior aspect of the hypochondrium. Via the should and neck, it goes up to Dicang (St 4) at the corner of the mouth, then passes Juliao (St 3)

Fig. 2-9 The Yinqiao Channel

?ig. 2-10 The Yangqiao Channel and Chengqi (St 1) to Jingming (U B 1), where it ascends into the hairline, goes behind the ear, meets the Gallbladder Channel and ends at Fengchi (G B 20) (Fig. 2-10).

3. The Collaterals

The collaterals are the branch conduits from the channels. They spread all over the body like a net. While the channels belong to the interior, lie deeper and are thicker, the collaterals are superficial and much thinner. The main function of the collateral is to transfuse qi and blood of the channels to all parts of the body to nourish the tendon, bone, skin and the five sense organs (nose, eye, lip, tongue and ear), and to link the interior with the exterior. The large one are altogether fifteen in number, i.e., the twelve from the Twelve Regular Channels respectively, plus the other three from the Du, Ren and Spleen Channels. These fifteen collaterals are all horizontal, connecting the internal and superficial channels.

4. The Twelve Tendon Channels

The tendon channels are of tendon-flesh nature affiliated to the system of channels and collaterals. They lie along the four extremitis, the body surface, the chest and abdomen. They do not enter the internal organs. Physiologically they mainly coordinate the movement of the limbs and bones.

5. The Skin Zones

The Skin Zones are the superficial parts of the system of the channels and collaterals. Although the channels lie within the flesh and muscles, not superficially near the skin, the collaterals from the channels go everywhere. Qi and blood at the skin part right rely on the collaterals for nourishment. So physiologically, the body surface is divided into twelve zones — 60 —

based on different channels and their collaterals. These divisions are called the Twelve Skin Zones.

6. The Application of the Theory of Channels and Collaterals to Outgoing-qi Therapy

Without knowing the doctrine of channels and collaterals, a qigong therapist can neither conduct the practice of training qi, guiding qi and emitting qi nor can he carry out differential treatment of patients, just as the old saying holds, "Without the understanding of the viscera, channels and collaterals, mistake will follow whenever one starts to talk or act".

(1) Guiding qigong Practice

Zhen Jiu Zhi Nan (A Guidebook on Acupuncture and Moxibustion) says "He who intends to learn acupuncture must take up exercises first. ...the skill of sitting in quiescence, to realize the circulation of qi along the channels and collaterals and the opening and closing of points so that he can have a good ground in acupuncture practice and can be clear-minded in determination of points. Otherwise he may have no idea of where to operate." This means qigong practice can help to understand the circulation of the channel qi within the human body, for it actually can facilitate a smooth llow of qi and blood along all the channels and collaterals, or in other words, the circulation of qi can be controlled by will.

The Eight Extra Channels, especially the Du and Ren Channels, are of utmost importance in qigong practice. Zhang Ziyang, lived in Song Dynasty (420-479), explained this in his book Ba Mai Jing(The Eight Extra Channels), saying, " The Eigl&l Extra Channels of the common people are of yin nature and are closed. Only the spirit immortals have theirs burst open with yang-qi (positive energy). So they get the knack. The Eight Extra Channels are the root of the main congenital channels and the ancestor of qi. "Li Shizhen (1578) stated in his Qi Jing Ba Mai Kao(Reserch on the Eight Extra Channels), "The Ren Channel and Du Channel are the prime meridians of the human body, the routes along which the qigong adepts make the yang-fire and yin—materials go up and down, and the home where the Kan-water and Li-fire have their intercourse." The practitioners generally refer to the sensation of channel qi flowing along the Ren and Du Channels as the "small circle of qi" and that along the Ren and Du channels as well as the Twelve Regular Channels as the "large circle of qi".

(2) Guiding Emission of Qi

The Training of guiding qi and emitting outgoing-qi comprises the training of qi circulation within the channels and collaterals, tendon collaterals and skin zones. Only when one is able to control the circulation, the coming in and going out and the spread and convergence of qi voluntarily, can he carry out emission of outgoing-qi.

The channels and their branches, the extra channels, the tendon channels and the skin zones altogether compose a qi circulation whole or a channel-collateral -qi system of the human body. This system interlinks the interior and the exterior, the upper and the lower, the left and the right, and extremities, bones, internal organs and all tissues of the human body, making the human body a complete, systematic organic whole,a structure closely bound up with "qi" of the natural world by way of the skin zones and points, and a three-in-one combination of the "three gifts"-—Heaven, Earth and man.

So the practitioner of qigong can, besides training the circulation of qi of his own, absorb qi which is beneficial to his health from the natural world to replenish and facilitate qi within his body. As regards outgoing-qi therapy, it means that the therapist mobilizes and activates qi of the natural world and that of the patient with his own qi to get the patient' s qi active, then regulates it with the method of purgating the excess and replenishing the deficiency, dredging the channels and leading qi back to its origin.

Section Two Application of the Book of Changes to Medicine and Outgoing-qi Therapy

The theory of application of the Book of Changes to medicine is one of the principle guiding Qigong outgoing-qi therapy. One who knows only the science of medicine without the understanding of the Change or vice versa can speak nothing of treatment of diseases by emission of outgoing-qi, for outgoing-qi therapy is the application of a clinical combination of the philosophy of the Change, medicine and qi which requires the therapist firstly has a deep understanding of the doctrine of exchanges and changes between the universe (Heaven and Earth) and the human being, the (Taoist) theory and skills of training qi and cultivating oneself, as well as the modern physiology and pathology of the human body. Just as stated by Zhang Jiebin (1624) in his book Lei Jing Tu Yi (Illustrated Supplementary to the Classified Canon), "Without the understanding of the Change one is not worthy of the name of an imperial physician." According to Zhang Jiebin, the truth of

the universe lies in the creation of all things with yin—qi and yang-qi while the truth of human being lies in growth and development of bones with yin—qi and yang—qi, both being the consequence of movement, rest, waning and waxing of yin and yang. So he also stated that "the similarity of medicine and the Change in their origin is the similarity of them in their variation" , "the philosophy of the Change implicates that of medicine, and the philosophy of medicine benefits from that of the Change", and " the variation of the Change rests with the universe while the application of medicine rests with the human being".

The Eight Diagrams

1. The Composition of the Eight Diagrams

Xici,a chapter of the book Zhouyi( The Book of Changes) states "Yi (the change) has Taiji (The Great Ultimate);Taiji articulates itself into two principles; the two principles articulate themselves into four symbols; and the four symbols articulate themselves into eight diagrams". The ancients believed that the Chaos (the nihility) when Earth was separated from Heaven was the phenomenon of Taiji (The Great Ultimate). The movement of Taiji produced the two principles of yin and yang. Yin—qi and yang—qi then developed and transformed themselves into the four symbols of Taiyin, Shaoyin, Taiyang and Shaoyang, which in turn articulated into the Eight Diagrams of Qian, Kun, Kan, Li, Zhen, Dui, Xun and Gen representing Heaven, Earth, water, fire, thunder, marsh, wind and mountain, which then divided into sixty-four diagrams and then more, in a binary system, to the infinite (Fig. 2-11).

Fig. 2—11 The Sequence of the Eight Diagrams

2. The Congenital Eight Diagrams

Another term for the Congenital Eight Diagrams is Fu Xi' s Eight Diagrams,with which Heaven and Earth are orientated based on Qian and K un. In the Congenital Eight Diagrams, Heaven and Earth, wind and thunder, water and fire, and mountain and marsh are all defined as couple yin and yang opposite to each other (Fig. 2-12). This kind of diagram is taken as the body aspect which governs qi and can generate all things.

3. The Acquired Eight Diagrams

Another term for it is King Wen's Eight Diagrams, with which south and north are orientated based on Li and Kan. In the Acquired Eight Diagrams, the five orientations of east, west, south, north and centre and the five elements of metal, wood, water, fire and earth are all matched with the Eight Diagrams (Fig. 2-13). This kind of diagram is taken as the applica tion aspect, which controls movement and is able to things.

Qian I si


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