Zhou Qianchuan, the eminent qigong master and scholar of traditional Chinese medicine, says in his Diet Therapy and Deviation-rescue Techniques in qigong,"Definitely speaking, all the well-known masters and seniors of acupuncture, bone-setting and massage of various generations have consummate attainments in qigong, or at least know qigong". He repeatedly explains the relationship between qigong and traditional Chinese medicine, especially the close link between qigong and massage, bone-setting and acupuncture. These wise remarks are conclusions made on the basis of his rich experience and
penetrating analysis of data.
No doubt, outgoing-qi therapy, massotherapy and acupuncture treatment are all important means of prevention and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine.
In outgoing—qi therapy, diagnosis or treatment of diseases is confirmed or performed through "emitting qi", and its prominent feature lies in "qi" regulation; while in modern Chinese massotherapy and acupuncture, the treatment of diseases is obtained through massage manipulations and needle—puncturing and needle-manipulations, with its prominent feature lying in " strength" regulation. Both the brilliant massceurs and acupuncturists of the old days laid emphasis on practice of qigong and. on the combination of qigong with manipulations of massage and acupuncture. By combining " qi regulation" with "strength regulation" in treatment, they raised the curative effect to a great extent and, this, according to Zhou Qianchuan, may be where the wisdom of "all the well-known masters and seniors of acupuncture and moxibustion, bone-setting and massage of various generations" lies.
Anmo Jing (Massage Classic) written by an anonymous person of the Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911) says, "The pathogen enters the body by way of Shuitu (St 10). ... On pressing Shuitu (St 10), the patient may feel slight pain in the subaxillary area and numbness of the fingers; elevating the thumb, he may feel the release of hot qi from his arm and fingers". "Press the tight part with the right thumb... with two-seven (fourteen) respiratory cycles, then remove the thumb... the evil heat descends along the channels to the legs and, hot as fire, down to the two feet," and the like. In this book, respiratory cycle is ex-— 12 —
pressed in two-seven (fourteen) when hotness sensation produced by hand manipulation is mentioned, which conforms to the number of yang-fire (positive fire) of the theory " Earth produces fire in two and Heaven compensates it in seven" . " The turbulence" on pressing implies the feeling of evil-qi (pathogenic message) by the therapist through hand manipula-tions.And "hot as fire down to the two feet", refers to the sensation of qi by the patient. That is the reason why great attention is paid to the sensation of qi when the manipulation of "guiding-qi massage" applied. The manipulation described by Wang Yaru in his book Digital Acupoint-pressing Massotherapy According to the Chart of Interna! Organs' is in fact "guiding—qi massage", for the method mentioned in this' book is actually created by the Taoist priests, with which massage manipulation is carried out based on the doctrine of the transposed Five Elements. So the principle of the book is closely related to the philosophy of qigong practice of the Toaist priests. The book mentions many phenomena of smooth circulation of qi when sensation of qi by the therapist is described. For example, the sensation of the appearance of a mass or several masses, the sensation of "water flow",the sounds "zhi zhi", the sensation of successive bubble bursts and other phenomena,are all the signs indicating the beginning of the free circulation of qi. With the routine massage manipulations, these sensations of qi are difficult to get and the therapist may not be able to make a clear judgement of whether qi is circulating or stagnated. So only when the manipulations of massage are combined with those of qigong, or in other words, when " strength" is combined with " guidance of qi", can the
9cz.%*:>va >»t harness or coldness, vital qi or pathogenic qi, and dialing qi or stagnated qi be identified.
1 x:;ne applies to the curative effect, which can only be j.-Jcd through combination of qigong and massage, t j.mcjlly, when the treatment needs more stimulation and reg-„.jimn by "strength", "strength regulation" should be taken as the main aspect with "qi regulation" as the accessary, and vice versa. Generally, it is rather difficult to distinguish "strength" and "qi". However, "qi" here means the outgoing-qi emitted, while "strength" means the power of force exerted as well as its direction and frequency, for which the therapist manipulates with his hand touching the body surface of the patient.
As the combination of qigong and acupuncture is concerned, Yang Jizhou of the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) attached great importance to it in his book Zhen Jiu Da Cheng ( Gr eat Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion). He held that the posture, mental activities and respiration of the therapist should conform to the principle of "three regulations" in qigong, saying that when the reinforcement manipulation was performed, the acupuncturist "must stand or sit straight, keep sedate and concentrate the mind without slackness. ... The importance of acupuncture lies in concentration of the mind". He also pointed out that the reinforcement and purgation should be carried out in compliance with the sun, the moon and the variations of qi of the universe, with the body posture proper, mind concentrated, guidance of qi by will, regulation of qi by respiration and manipulation of the needle by strength so that the genuine qi could be led to the focus of disease. Hou Han Shu - Fang Shu Lie Zhuan (History of the Late Han Dyn asty — Biographies of Methods and Techniques) cites a quotation from Guo Yuzhi, "The striae of skin, muscles and viscera are so fine and minute that the manipulation on them should be performed with regulation of qi. ... The effect of mind concentration on the heart and the hand is within tacit understanding but beyond words". This indicates that the needling level of an acupuncturist rests with whether he can "concentrate his attention on the heart and hand" during operation, for as a therapist, qi follows will (in the adept at qigong), and when attention is concentrated on the heart and hand, qi can be "governed" by will and the "channel qi" of the patient can then be controlled and led to the focus of the disease. Zhen Jiu Da Cheng (Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) introduces in detail the methods of training qi for acupuncturists, pointing out that the practice of qigong should be started with the training of small circle of qi (qi circulating along the Ren and Du Channels), and through strict, arduous training of qi circulation, to attain the realm in which the practitioner " feels the body and mind in Chaos as if he has entered into nihility that he does not know whether his body is for him and he is for his body and spirit is for qi and qi is called spirit; he does not intend to confine himself but he is confined; he is not able to make fetal breath but fetal breath accours automatically; water (fluid) circulates without guidance by will, fire is expelled with no suggestion; light generates in void and needle is threaded in the darkness; he knows that things are so but does not know why they are so, and he does not know whether the Ren Channel is Du or the Du Channel is Ren" . If an acupuncturist can reach the realm described in the book, to perform qigong-acupuncture for treatment of diseases will be as easy as turning his hand over. So when the adept performs " lighting the mountain fire" , real hotness may be induced; when he conducts "cooling the Heaven", real coolness will occur. And once he combines qi with strength in treatment of diseases, he will attain a kind of curative effect hard for common healers to come by.
It is generally considered that when qigong therapists emit qi to a patient, they do not touch the body surface of the patient, and the farther they are away from the patient, the better the curative effect and the more brilliant the therapist will be. This is actually a prejudice. In fact, an experienced qigong therapist can emit his qi into the body of the patient no matter whether he touches the patient or not. The difference lies in that emitting qi with hand away from the body surface of the patient embodies "qi regulation"; and with hand touching the patient embodies "strength regulation", which is a combination of strength and qi, or, the facilitation of strength by qi. This is the reason that we say that it is not enough for a good outgoing-qi therapist to have the experience in qigong practice and the skill of emission of outgoing-qi,moreover, he should have a profound understanding of the philosophy of the technique, have a good grasp of the skills of massage and acupuncture, and be able to combine them as an organic whole so that he can carry out treatment with high proficiency to ensure the quality of treatment and to avoid misdiagnosis and erroneous treatment of diseases.
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