As far as the whole human body is concerned, the upper part is yang while the lower is yin; the back is yang, the abdomen is yin; the left is yang and the right is yin; the exterior is yang and the interior is yin. So far as the internal organs of the human body are concerned, the six fu-organs (six hollow or-
f gans referring to the gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, urinary bladder and Sanjiao or three warmers) are yang while the five zang or viscera (five solid organs referring to the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) are yin. As for an individual organ, the function of the organ is yang and the substance is yin; qi is yang while the blood is yin. It is hence written in Su Wen — Jin Gui Zhen Yan Lun (Plain Questions — Synopsis of Genuine Words of the Golden Chamber) that " It is said that, of the human being,the lateral aspect is yang and the medial is yin; of the body, the back is yang and the abdomen is yin". According to Neijing (Canon of Internal Medicine), the human body can be divided into three pairs of yin and yang: with the navel as a horizontal demarcation line, the part above the navel (from the navel to the head) is yang and below that (from the navel to the feet) is yin; with the points Baihui (Du 20) and Huiyin (Ren 1) as a vertical demarcation line, the left half of the bodyis yang and the right is yin; the posterior half is yang and the anterior half is yin (Fig. 2-1). Qi activities of
Fig. 2—1 The Yin and Yang Aspects of the Human Body these yin—yang unities and the internal organs and tissues, in terms of evil or vital, excessive or deficient, strong or weak, as
Fig. 2—1 The Yin and Yang Aspects of the Human Body these yin—yang unities and the internal organs and tissues, in terms of evil or vital, excessive or deficient, strong or weak, as well as the direction and nature of qi can be detected with outgoing-qi at their corresponding body surfaces so that data for diagnosis and treatment can be provided. For example, strong, dense, dry and hot sensation of qi around the head may manifest in the syndrome of excess in the upper and deficiency in the lower and excess of yang and deficiency of yin, a case that requires the therapist to guide yang to descend and yin to ascend to restore the normal physiological function with yin and yang balanced and water and fire coordinated.
(2) Training Qi and Treating Diseases According to the Motion Law of Yin and Yang
As, for example, the spring and summer are regarded as yang and the autumn and winter as yin; the six two-hour periods of Zi, Chou, Yin, Mao, Chen and Si as yang and the si two-hour periods of Wu, Wei, Shen, You, Xu and Hai as yin; exhalation as yang and inhalation as yin, patients with exuberance qfyang and hyperactivity of fire should practice training qi during the yin periods, facing north, and with stress laid on)exhaling, while the therapist should adhere to the principle of replenishing yin to invigorate yang and leading yang to descend to supplement yin.
(3) Yin and Yang in Explanation of the Pathological Changes of the Human Body and in Diagnosis of Diseases
If the equilibrium of the dynamic state of yin and yang is disturbed, overabundance or deficiency of yin or yang will develop, and diseases will occur accordingly.Generally speaking,the over-exuberance of yang may lead to deficiency of yin, giving rise to illness; while the over—exuberance of yin
i may lead to deficiency of yang, similarly giving rise to illness. Hot syndrome can be the result of either overabundance of yang or deficiency of yin while cold syndrome may result from either overabundance of yin or deficiency of yang. Once the nature of yin and yang is determined, proper method of outgoing-qi emission can be selected to regulate the excess and insufficiency of yin and yang so as to cure the disease. The principle of treatment is explained in Su Wen "- Zhi Zhen Yao Da Lun (Plain Questions — Great Conclusions of Genuine Essentials), saying "Cold—syndrome should be treated with warm-natured drugs and heat-syndrome with cold-natured drugs"; and in Su Wen - Yin Yang Ying Xiang Da Lun (Plain Questions — On Conclusions of the Correspondence of Yin and Yang), saying "Treat yin for yang diseases; treat yang for yin diseases" . This means that treatment should be aimed at purging the excess to replenish the insufficiency and regulating the over—exuberance or deficiency of yin and yang so that the normal, balanced state of the body can be restored. For instance, intake of cold food or drinks may lead to overabundence of yin which in turn gives rise to cold-syndrome of spleen and stomach manifested by pain, diarrhoea, aversion to cold and cold extremities. Here outgoing-qi therapy can be preformed in line with "treating cold-syndrome with warm-natured drugs", that is, to guide hot yang qi and emit it toward the points such as Zhongwan (Ren 12) and Tianshu (St 25), and then guide the cold qi of the patient out of the body by way of Zusanli (St 36) and Yinlingquan (Sp 9), etc.
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Achieve Health, Wealth And Body Balance Through Yin Yang Mastery. Cut up on the old stone drums of Republic of China, inscribed in books handed down through thousands of years, traced on ancient saucers and on saucers made today, is a sign and a symbol. It is woven into textiles, stitched into embroideries, emblazoned over house gates, wrought into shop emblems, a circle, locked together inside it yang and yin yang, light, yin, dark, each carrying inside itself the essence of the other, each shaped to the other