The Twelve Informatory Diagrams

The Twelve Informatory Diagrams (hexagrams) are also termed Twelve Pi diagrams. The doctrine was put forward by Meng Xi of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) who took the Twelve Pi diagrams as the representative of the order of the twelve months of the year. The twelve diagrams consist of seventy—two yao lines, which symbolize seventy—two climatic seasons. As the changes of the seventy—two yao lines, termed hardness and softness (yin and yang), embody the process of waning and waxing of yin and yang, Wei Boyang of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) took them to analogize the extent of small or large circle of qi in practice of training qi, and the physicians of the ancient time then used them to interpret the relationship between nature and growth and development as well as the visce- ra, channels and circulation of qi.

1. The Contents of the Twelve Informatory Diagrams

SB SSX

They refer to the twelve hexagrams of Fu = = , Lin

Gou =£5 , Dun , Pi =r= , Guan§Ts , Bo s s ,and Kun = = . The first six hexagrams, from the Fu to Qian, indicate the process of gradual waxing of yang-yao and gradual waning of yin-qi; while the other six, from Gou to Kun, represent the process of gradual waxing of yin-yao and the increase of yin-qi.They are given the general term of Twelve Informatory (Waning and Waxing) Diagrams right for the reason that the first six implicate the wax of yang and the wane of yin and the second six implicate the wax of yin and the wane of yang. The Twelve Informatory Diagrams represent the law of the changes of hardness and softness (the domination and yield) and the growth and decline of yin and yang, and explicate the close relationship between the seasons, the time, the zang and fu organs, the channels, and the transformation and circulation of qi. They are taken as the theoretical principle guiding Qigong practice and diagnosis and treatment of diseases with outgoing-qi (Table 2-3).

Table 2-3 The Relationship between the Twelve Informatory

_Diagrams and Time and the Internal Organs _

Diagram Picture Month Season Time Earthly Organs Pulse Channels for

Branches

Qi Flowing

Fu S =

Nov.

Winter 23-1

Zi

Kidney

Deep

Gallbladder

Lin = =

Dec.

Winter 1-3

Chou

Sanjiao

Deep

Liver

Tai gLS Jan.

Spring 3-5

Yin

Liver

Taut

Lung

Dazhuang ~ ~ Feb. Guai -: Mar.

Spring 5-7 Spring 7-9

Pericardium

Stomach

Qian ==

Apr.

Summer 9—11

Si

Small Intestine

Full

Spleen

Gou

May

Summer 11-13

Wu

Heart

Full

Heart

Dun W%

June

Summer 13-15

Wei

Spleen

Full

Small Intestine

Pi m

July

Autumn 15-17

Shen

Stomach

Superficial

Urinary Bladder

Guan H

Aug.

Autumn 17-19

You

Lung

Superficial

Kidney

Bo = =

Sept.

Autumn 19-21

Xu

Large Intestine

Superficial

Pericardium

Kun 1 H

Oct.

Winter 21-23

Hai

Urinary Bladder

Deep

Sanjiao

2 The Practice of Qigong According to the Twelve Informatory Diagrams

The process of waxing and waning of yin and yang of the human body in all one's life, or a year, a month, and even a day can all be manifested by the Twelve Informatory Diagrams. Take, for example, a year as one week, a month is then one diagram; a month as a week, two and half days are then a diagram; and a day as a week, the one two-hour period is a diagram. Now let us take a month as one week, which has two and half days in one diagram, as an example. The process of fluctuation of yin and yang starts at the beginning of the month when yang-qi begins to grow, which is regarded as the Fu Diagram indicative of the generation of vitality, or to put it differently, one yang generates from the Kun Diagram |§ § , which is of whole yin. Then the yang aspect continues to grow while the yin aspect begins to decline to enter into the state of yin and yang in equilibirium, a state of Tai Diagram WM indicative of coordination between yin and yang, then into the Qian Diagram = indicative of the period of full bloom of yang, just at a time of the fifteenth day of the month. From the beginning of the next half of the month, yang will wane gradually and yin begins to flourish, entering the state of yang decline expressed by the Gou Diagram jNgj; , then into Pi Diagram =ff| , which is indicative of incoordination between Heaven and Earth and discordance between yin and yang, a state at which vitality is at its lowest ebb. The same thing happens in a year, a month, a day and during the physiological and pathological processes. The life process from its beginning to its prime, decline and death, is also in accord with this law (Fig.

Fig. 2-20 The Twelve Informatory Diagrams

Fig. 2-20 The Twelve Informatory Diagrams

Note: 1. The months are in lunar canlender.

2.The numerals in brakets from (1) to (12) refer respectively to.-the Winter Solstice, Great Cold, Rain Water, the Spring Equinox, Grain Rain, Grain Full, the Summer Solstice, Great Heat, the Limit of Heat, the Autumn Equinox, Frost's Descent and Slight Snow.

So long as Qigong practice is concerned, at the stage of the Fu Diagram i = which means more yin than yang, the practitioner should regulate himself with the stress put on nourishing yang, which requires long inhaling and short exhaling. While at the stage of Gou Diagram pi , which represents more yang and less yin, one should do short inhaling and long exhaling. It is for this reason that when the time and direction for Qigong practice and the methods of respiration and mind concentration required are determined properly in accordance with the Twelve Informatory Diagrams, the result of " turning Pi into

Tai" can be attained and the physiological function of the body can be maintained in a normal state with coordination of yin and yang, which is a state of Tai Diagram.

3. The Twelve Informatory Diagrams and the Physiological Function

Of the Twelve Informatory Diagrams, the Tai === and Pi =~=represent the best and the worst stages of the physiological function of the human body respectively. The Tai Diagram consists of half Yin and half Yang with the former located above the latter indicating the descending of yin and ascending of yang, a stage of smooth circulation of qi inside the body,and a stage of physiological equilibrium between yin and yang, the state which, as tradition has, is "the coordination of yin and yang that reveals vigorous life vitality". On the contrary, the Pi Diagram has yang above yin, which indicates the disorderly descend and ascend of yin and yang and the incoordination between them, showing the decline of the physiological function which, as tradition holds, is "the state of separation of yin and yang that indicates the end of life".

The modern biorhythm doctrine has proved that the physiological function of the human body changes in a regular way during a year, a month or even a day. The law of its changes is hereof explained in the light of the ebb and flow of yin and yang of the Twelve Informatory Diagrams, with a year as an example. Of the Twelve Informatory Diagrams, The Tai, Dazhuang and Guai are related to the spring, or the first, second and third months of the lunar year. As this period is the time when yang flows and yin ebbs gradually and the wood-qi or the liver and gallbladder qi is vigorous, the pulse is often felt taut. And because the exuberance of thé spring-wood restricts the spleen-earth, diseases due to asthenia of the spleen" and stomach occurring at this time may be imputed to the disadvantage of the climate.

If the law of growth and decline of yin and yang included in the Twelve Informatory Diagrams is used to explaiin the human life, the Kun Diagram then means the period of fetus, Fu refers to the period of newborn and childhood, Tai the puberty, Qian the prime of life or the middle age, Pi the geratic period, and Kun the death. The physiological status of the aged is identical with the Pi diagram, which indicates the waning of yin and decline of yang and incoordination between them, so the aged should practise Qigong against this physiological law to try to gain the state of Tai Diagram back through regulation of posture, respiration and mind Concentration to suppress yin and help recuperate yang. Only in this way, they can build up their health and prolong the life.

4. The principle of Qigong Practice During the Zi, Wu, Mao and You Periods

Most of the Qigong practitioners advocate the practice of Qigong during the Zi, Wu, Mao and You periods, which are given the term of "the four principal periods". We here analyse the mechanism of Qigong practice during these periods on the basis of the growth and decline of yin and yang of the Twelve Informatory Diagrams. Traditional Chinese medicine holds that Zi is related to the kidney; the kidney is the source of qi. The kidriey-qi is called "ministerial fire of Mingmen (Du 4 or the gate of life)", or " young fire" , which is the root of life formed through the supreme combination of the primordial yin and yang and stored seclusively in the kidney—water. The Zi period is in accord with the Fu st^ , a diagram with five yin lines at the top and one yang line at the bottom. This is right the period when qi of the natural world and yang—qi (positive energy) in the kidney are in full accord, generating continuously and vibrating vigorously. To practice during this period is highly effective and can get twice the result with half the effort.

Mao is the period when the sun rises and yang progresses.lt is in accord with the Dazhuang Diagram == which has two lines of yin and four lines of yang withthe yang waxing and the yin waning. This is a period during which yang-qi of the human body is in full bloom. So practice at this period helps the vigorous growth of yang.

The Wu period is matched with the diagram Gou == with five yang lines and one yin line, meaning the exuberance of yang at the top. Wu is regarded asheart-fire. The channel qi of the human body flows right along the Heart Channel. As the heart is considered Taiyang in the yang, the combination of the two yang will naturally result in the flourishing of yang. However, as the one line of yin is the dominating aspect, yang—qi tends to wane other than to grow. And because yin and yang are interdependent, to practice at this period will certainly help the growth of yin—qi and the suppression of the hyperactivity of yang, leading to the tranquilization of the five yang along with the development of one yin to avoid generation of pathogenic dryness.

The You period is matched with the diagram Guan =| , which has four lines of yin and two lines of yang. It is a period

when qi of the natural world turns from lucid to turbid, a time when Qigong practice is helpful to the progress of primordial yin and the conservation and nourishment of yang.

To practise Qigong during the Zi, Wu, Mao and You periods is right to facilitate the vigorous growth of the internal qi along with the changes of qi of nature. However, because of the difference of the individuals in health status and constitution, " to practise during the four principal periods" can only be taken as a principle guiding the selection of the time for practice. The actual conditions pf the individuals, the number of yin and yang in nature and the fluctuation of yin and yang should also be taken into consideration.

<5. The Twelve Informatory Diagrams and the Circulation of

As a law, qi and blood circulate, in terms of time, in the Gallbladder Channel during the Zi period, in the Liver Channel during Chou, in the Lung Channel during Yin, in the Large Intestine Channel during Mao, in the Stomach Channel during Chen, in the Spleen Channel during Si, in the Heart Channel during Wu, in the Small Intestine Channel during Wei, in the Urinary Bladder Channel during Shen, in the Kidney Channel during You, in the Pericardium Channel during Xu and in the Sanjiao Channel during Hai (Fig. 2-21). The Gallbladder Channel belongs to yang, to wood and to the diagram Fu at the Zi period, a time when one yang of nature is beginning to grow and qi and blood of the body circulate in the Gallbladder Channel.So qi of the liver and gallbladder is vigorous at this time, So long as the relationship between gallbladder-wood and the internal organs is concerned, the prosperity Of — 90 —

liver / gallbladder-wood restricts the spleen-earth; the lung-meta,l restrics the gallbladder-wood whilethe nourishing of the gallbladder-wood impairs the lung-metal; kidney-water generates gallbladder-wood and the nourishing of wood results in hyperactivity of water; gallbladder-wood generates

Fig. 2-21 The Twelve Jnformatory Diagrams and the Flowing Order of the Channels Note.- The names of the internal organs represent the channels.

heart-fire, but when fire purges wood, the gallbladder will weaken, and when gallbladder-wood is vigorous, the heart-fire is benefited. The relations of generation, restriction, subjugation and reverse restriction between the Five Elements change at different time with the changes of qi of nature and the increase and decrease of qi and blood in the viscera. This relationship can be seen clearly from the illustration of the

Fig. 2-21 The Twelve Jnformatory Diagrams and the Flowing Order of the Channels Note.- The names of the internal organs represent the channels.

heart-fire, but when fire purges wood, the gallbladder will weaken, and when gallbladder-wood is vigorous, the heart-fire is benefited. The relations of generation, restriction, subjugation and reverse restriction between the Five Elements change at different time with the changes of qi of nature and the increase and decrease of qi and blood in the viscera. This relationship can be seen clearly from the illustration of the

Twelve Informatory Diagrams and the circulation of qi and blood along the channels and collaterals. In the practice of Qigong to keep fit or cure diseases and in outgoing-qi treatment of patients, full consideration should be given to the relationship between the time of practice or treatment and the status of the viscera so that the guideline for practice or emission of outgoing—qi and the proper methods can be determined. Only in this way,can satisfactory effect be attained.

6. The Twelve Informatory Diagrams and the Crucial Moment for Attainment of Small or Large Circle of Qi

Circle of qi is divided into small and large. The small circle of qi refers to the level of attainment of transforming essence into qi. Its main characteristic lies in circulation of qi along the Ren and Du Channels. The large circle of qi means a more sophisticated skill. The most important thing is that neither can be attained without a good understanding and seizing of the crucial moment for practice.

The crucial moment here refers right to the favourable turn for generation and transformation of qi in Qigong practice. Taking advantage of this turn, the practitioner can regulate his own posture, respiration and mind concentration according to the law of Qigong practice at will; otherwise, he will loose the favourable opportunity for achivements. To facilitate the understanding and mastery of this doctrine, the ancient Qigong masters explarued the crucial moment for attainment of small or large circle of qi and the changing property of the qi field by way of the Twelve Informatory Diagrams and Yueti Najia (the Moon Embraces the Heavenly Stems).

Take the Twelve Informatory Diagrams as an example. It — 92 —

is stressed that the practice of the small or large circle of qi should be started at the Zi period when one Yang is beginning to generate. The reason lies in that Zi is the period related to Full of the Twelve Informatory Diagrams, which indicates the generation of one yang. Practising at this period, which is called "the live Zi period " in old times, the internal qi will accumulate continuously and form a flow of energy, bringing about the first phenomenon, among others, of "the impulse of the scrotum". This is right the crucial moment for attainment of circle of qi, at which one should use "wuhuo" or vigorous conscious breathing, mind concentraing and posturing to help the accumulation and circulation of energy in a progressive way to experience the state of the hexagrams of Lin, Tai, Dazhuang, Gui and Qian, a process traditionally called " the progression of yang—fire". But when the yang-fire reaches its climax, it will turn naturally to the yin aspect, which, illustrated on the Twelve Diagrams g= , is the Gou , which indicates the generation of one yin, a moment that requires one to use "wenhuo" or gentle breathing and mind concentrating till the period representative of Kun 1 s is attained. This is traditionally called "retrogression of yin—symbol".

Yueti Najia (The Moon Embraces the Heavenly Stems)

The doctrine of Yueti Najia is applied to training of active substance inside the body. It is put forward in Zhouyi Can Tong Qi (Tally to the Book of Changes) by Wei Boyang of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 - 220). The doctrine is used to ex plain the law of growth and decline of qi inside the human body during Qigong practice, in which the crucial moment for Qigong practice changes with the waxing and waning and the position of the moon and, it is for this reason that the poem "When one asks me about my practice of Taoism, I just show him the remote moon in the sky" was prevalent among the alchemists (fangshi).

1. The Contents of Yueti Najia

The Ten Heavenly Stems in the order of Jia, Yi, Bing, Ding, Wu, Ji, Geng, Xin, Ren and Kui represent the positions of the moon. Or to put it differently, Jia-Yi-wood represents east, Bing-Ding-fire south, Geng-Xin-metal west, Ren-Kui- water north and Wu-Ji-earth the centre. On the Congenital Eight Diagrams, the symbols of the trigrams represent the appearance of the moon, the Heavenly Stems represent the positions of the moon. Literally, "Yueti" means "the body of the moon" and "Najia" means "embracing Jia" (one of the Ten Heavenly Stems). Yueti Najia is so termed because everyone of the Eight Diagrams (trigrams) embraces one or two of the Ten Heavenly Stems. And as Jia is the first stem, which is embraced by Qian, the first in the Congenital Eight Diagrams, it is taken as the representative of the other stems. Specifically, Qian == embraces Jia and Ren, Kun EE EE embraces Yi and Kui, Zhen ==_= embraces Geng, Xun EFE embraces Xin, Gen =="= embraces Bing, Dui embraces Ding, Kan EHE embraces Wu, and Li — .~f embraces Ji. Of the Eight Diagrams, Qian and Kun embrace two of the Ten Heavenly Stems while the others embrace one respectively. This is because Jia and Yi of the ten stems represent the origination of — 94 —

>in and yang while Ren and Kui represent the termination of yin and yang. To match Qian and Kun with Jia, Yi, Ren and Kui indicates yin and yang from beginning to end, as is stated by Wei Boyang of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 - 220) in his book Zhouyi Can Tong Qi (Tally to the Book of Changes) that " Ren and Kui are combined with Jia and Yi, and Qian and Kun comprise the beginning and end" . The symbol of the trigrams used in the doctrine of Najia is explained as EE-EE indicating the appearance of the moon at the third of the lunar month; indicating an up-stringed moon at the eighth of the month; indicating the appearance of a full moon at the fifteen, HEE indicating the appearance of the moon at the sixteenth; 5TE indicating a downstringed moon at the twenty-third; and EE E: indicating a dark moon at the thirtieth of the month.The appearance of the moon during the first half of the lunar month symbolizes the waxing of yang and waning of yin, while that during the second half symbolizes the waning of yang and waxing of yin.^ ~ and--indicate medicaments (the component for training qi, referring to the sun and moon) (Fig. 2—22). In fact, the ancients divided the month into six sections, each being five days. Except that Kan and Li represent medicaments, each of the other six trigrams represents one section. For example, Zhen represents the first five days of a month,with the third day representative of the phase of the moon at this section. The same arrangement is applied to other trigrams.

Why the diagrams are so matched with the Ten Heavenly Stems? The explanation is that at the dask of the third of a lunar month, a new moon appears in the west, which means that

ZhenEJE contains Geng; at the* eighth when an up—stringed moon appeafs in the south, Dui contains Ding; at the dask of the fifteenth, a full moon appears in the east, meaning that Qian contains Jia; at dawn of the sixteenth, the slight dent moon appears in the west, meaning that Xun ==£. contains Xin; at dawn of the twenty-third, a down-stringed moon appears in the south, meaning that GenETE contains Bing; and at dawn of the thirtieth, a dark (Hui) moon appears in the east, meaning Kun EEE5 contains Yi.

Fig. 2-22 Yueti Najia (The Moon Embraces the Heavenly Stems) 2, Regulation of Breathing at Fixed Time and Orientation

Now that it is clear that the changes of yin and yang of the

Fig. 2-22 Yueti Najia (The Moon Embraces the Heavenly Stems) 2, Regulation of Breathing at Fixed Time and Orientation

Now that it is clear that the changes of yin and yang of the four seasons are caused by the waxing and waning of the sun and the moon, Qigong practice and treatment of illnesses should comply with the climatic changes. The time and orientation for Qigong practice and the methods of breathing regulation should be determined in the light of the law of Yueti Najia in order to facilitate the intake of essence of the universe to nourish the body and live one' s full span. To explain it,when ZhenEJE contains Geng which implies two yin and one primarily generating yang, at a time from the first to the fifth of a lunar month when the moon appears in the west at dask with its surface accepting less sunlight, breathing regulation should be carried out with the practitioner facing east and the duration for intake of qi should be longer in order to absorb yang to nourish yin. Dui containing Ding is from the sixth to the tenth when the moon appears in the south at dask with its shape turning from crescent to half and its surface accepting more sunlight. The practitioner should practise even breathing facing south. Qian === containing Jia is from the eleventh to the fifteenth when the moon is full with its surface accepts sunlight best (called full yang in yin), and at dask a bright moon will appear in the east. This is the time to carry out breathing regulation facing east, and as yin—qi and yang— qi are plentiful at this time, even breathing should be taken. The above mentioned are the regulation methods at the first three periods of a lunar month from the beginning of the month till the moon is full. Xun EFEE containing Xin is from the sixteenth to the twentieth when the sunlight on the moon surface becomes less, yang wanes and yin waxes and the moon appears in the west at dawn. It is a time to face west for regulation.

Gen containing Bing is from the twenty-first to the twenty-fifth when the moon accepts much less sunlight and appears in the south at dawn, a time for the practitioner to face south for, regulation. Kun = —containing Yi is from the twenty-sixth to the thirtieth when the moon surface is dark which leads to the period of yin (Kun), and the practitioner should face east for regulation. As yin grows and yang declines from the sixteenth to the end of the month, regulation of breathing at this period should be aimed at replenishing yang to help yin to nourish the yin essence.

3. Tonification of Deficiency and Purgation of Excess

The doctrine of Yueti Najia demonstrates the definite influence of the changes of the position of the earth,sun and moon on man, which can be seen from the changes of the moon. Ling Shu — Sui Lu Lun (Miraculous Pivot - On the Year)states, "Man is closely related to the universe and corresponds with the sun and the moon". Su Wen - Ba Zheng Shen Ming Lun (a chapter of Plain Questions) holds " When the moon begins to wax, qi and blood of man start to be nourished; when it is full, they are substantial; when it wanes, the muscles become thinner and the channels and collaterals deficient" The ancients came to the conclusion that qi and blood of man are influenced by the turning of the sun and the moon on the basis of their observation of the tide of the sea water, which is influenced by the sun and the moon. They therefore put forward the tonifying and purging principle for qigong practice in terms of "performing no tonification at the fifteenth when the moon is full, no purgation at the thirtieth when the moon is dark, no tonification when qi and blood are — 98 —

sufficient, an4 no purgation when they are deficient". To provide reference for qigong practice and clinical treatment, the Eight Diagrams, the Ten Heavenly Stems, the appearance of the moon and the tide as well as their relations with the principle of tonificatipn and purgation of qi and blood of man are listed below.

Table 2-4 The Relationship between Yueti Najia and the

Principle of Tonification and Purgation

Diagrams Date & Stems

Appearance Position of Moon of Moon

Cause of the Moon Appearance

Tide

Qi & Blood

Regula-non

Zhen contains

Geng

1st

New

West at dask

Moon between th sun and earth

Spring

Turning excessive

No tonification

Dui, contains

Ding

8th

Up-stringed

South at dask

Moon 90 degrees east of sun

Neap

Deficient

No purga tion

Qian contains

Jia

15 th

Full

East

Moon opposite sun with earth in between

Spring

Execessive

No toni— fipation

Xun contains

Xin

16 th

Dent

West in the mornngn

Ditto (but to the west)

Medium

Turning deficient

No purga tion

Gen contains Bing

23th

Down-stringed

South in the morning

Moon 90 degrees west of sun

Neap

Deficient

No purga tion

Kun contains

Yi

30th

Dark

East in the morning

Moon between the sun and earth

Medium

Deficient

No purga tion

For example, yang-qi of the natural world becomes plentiful gradually from the 11th to the 15th. Influenced by this, spring tide occurs at the 15 th when the moon is full, and qi and blood of man will become vigorous, too. This is a good opportunity for qigong practitioners suffering from qi deficiency to replenish qi. However, those with sufficiency of qi should not take the tonifying method lest over—exuberance of qi occur. The River Chart and the Luo River Graph

The River Chart (Hetu) and the Luo River Graph (Luoshu) are two very old drawings. Legend has it that one day in the reign of King Fu Xi, a dragon horse with a pattern of spots on its back appeared from under the water of a river. The pattern was then given the name " River Chart". King Fu Xi himself drew the Eight Diagrams based on the spots. And when Yu, the reputed founder of the Xia Dynasty (c. 21th - 16th century B.C.) carried out his engineering to regulate rivers and watercourses, an immortal turtle came out of the Luo River, with a graph carved on its shell, which was given the name " Luo River Graph". Yu then drew down the graph and arranged it in nine scopes. So Zhouyi - Xici (a chapter of the Book of Changes) says that "The River Chart and the Luo River Graph come from the rivers and are developed by the sages".

1. The Contents of the River Chart and the Luo River Graph

(1) The River Chart

Nan Yi Xun Yuan (Searching for the Source of Difficulty and Simplicity) states, "Heaven-one generates water and results in Earth-six; Earth-two generates fire and results in Heaven-seven; Heaven-three generates wood and results in Earth-Eight; Earth-four generates metal and results in Heaven-nine; and Heaven-five generates earth and results in Earth—ten" . Lei Jing Tu Yi (Illustrated Supplementary to the Classified Canon) describes, "The numbers one and six are Io-

cated at the bottom, two and seven at the top. three and eight on the left, four and nine on the right, and five and ten in the centre". The two passages introduce in detail the arrangement of the River Chart, in which the yang numbers are odd, representing yang and Heaven, the yin numbers are complex, representing yin and Earth. The numbers in the River Chart are arranged with yin and yang mutually connected and supplemented, an arrangement from which qi of the Five Elements (wood, fire, water, metal and earth) is generated. Yang grows on the basis of yin and vice versa; the extremity of yang results in generation of yin and vice versa. In this way, yin and yang connect with and replace each other to generate qi, or to say, the intercourse between one yin and one yang results in qi.Speaking of the arrangement pf the River Chart again, the numbers one and six are in the north and regarded as Ren-Kui-water, two and seven in the south as Bing-Ding-fire, three and eight in the east as Jia-Yi- wood, four and nine in the west as Geng-Xin-metal, and five and ten in the centre as Wu-Ji-earth (Fig. 2-23).

Fire Front South

Wood

Left

East

Fire Front South

Left

East

Right

West

Back North Water

Right

West

Metal

Back North Water h'ig, 2-23 The River Chart

(2) The Luo River Graph

Tan Rongchuan says in his book Yiyi Tong Shuo (A General Description of Application of the Book of Changes to Medicine),"In the centre stands the number five, with the number nine above, one below, three on the left, seven on the right, two and four as its shoulders, six arid eight as its feet, yang numbers as Heaven, yin numbers as Earth, yang numbers turning leftward (clockwise), and yin numbers turning rightward (counterclockwise)". This explains the composition of the Luo River Graph. The arrangement is: the number one is in the north, three in the east, nine in the south, seven in the west, the yang numbers going leftwards; the yin going rightwards, two in the southwest, four in the southeast, eight in the northeast, and six in the northwest (Fig. 2-24).

2. The Difference be-

m/h^ Front South V^N^otatoixni.o tween the River Chart and the Luo River Graph

The River Chart and the Luo River Graph are all composed of yin and yang numbers of Heaven and Earth.The difference between them lies in their

Left East

Centre

Earth

Kight West

Back North

Fig. 2-24 The Luo River Graph structure. In the River Chart, yin and yang as well as the Five Elements are ranged in five positions with appropriate copulations. The Five Elements turn leftwards, indicating the interpromotion between them. So the River Chart represents Heaven and is regarded as the body aspect and the congenital structure. In the Luo River Graph, yin and yang and the Five —102—

Elements are arranged in nine positions. The yang numbers go leftwards while the yin go rightwards, indicating the evolution and exchanges between them. The Five Elements also turn rightwards, which is indicative of the interrestraint between them. So the Luo River Graph represents Earth, the application aspect and the acquired structure. As stated in Xuan Zhen Yin-Yang Wuxing Zhuj i (The Foundation of Yin—Yang and the Five Elements by Xuanzhen), "The River Chart results from the harmonious copulation of yin and yang while the Luo River Graph- from the evolution and exchanges of them; the former is congenital while the latter acquired. The combination of the congenital (as the body aspect) and the acquired (as the application aspect) will bring about growth and development of all things of the universe".

3. The Numbers in the River Chart and the Luo River Graph and Their Relationship with Tonification and Purgation in Qigong

The numbers in the River Chart are congenital which are matched with congenital qi of man, with the generating dominating the resultant. The north kidney—water is copulated with one and six, south heart—fire with two and seven, east liver—wood with three and eight, west lung—metal with four and nine, and centre spleen—earth with five and ten. With one aspect generative and the other resultant in each pair, the generating and restricting functions of the internal organs expressed by the Five Elements are established. Congenital insufficiency will lead to disorder of the internal organs and the Five Elements, which should be regulated with the numbers in the River Chart. For instance, deficiency of kidney—essence

and congenital qi should be replenished with, the resultant number (six) of north kidney-water first, then with the resultant number (nine) of west lung—metal (to tonify the mother).

The numbers in the Luo River Graph are acquired. The kidney is copulated with north, water, and one; the liver with east, wood and three; the heart with south, fire and nine; the lung with west, metal and seven; and the spleen with centre, earth and five. So pathogenic excess of the lung should be restricted with south-fire-nine.

In the Luo River Graph, the positive (yang) numbers are arranged in an endless cycle from one to three, then to nine, to seven and back to one; the negative (yin) numbers from two to four, to eight, to six and then back to two. To explain it in detail, the negative numbers are the results of multiplication of two by two which equals four, by four which equals eight, by eight which equals sixteen (but ten is not counted), and by six which equals twelve (ten is not counted). The positive numbers are the results of multiplication of three by one which equals three, by three which equals nine, by nine which equals twenty seven (twenty is not counted), and by seven which equals twenty—one (twenty is not counted). The cycling of the negative (yin) and positive (yang) numbers indicates the law of motion of yin and yang in all things. So the principle " to rotate leftwards (clockwise) for tonification" and " to rotate rightwards (counterclockwise) for purgation" is adhered to in Chinese qigong, massage (Tuina) and acupuncture and moxibustion, for it is widely accepted that rotating clockwise means " yang promoting growth", which facilitates the contin-—104—

uous circulation of yang-qi and is helpful to tonification of qi and replenishment of deficiency; while rotating counterclockwise along with yin and against yang means "yin killing evils" , which helps to purgate excess and expel pathogenic evils.

4. The River Chart and Essence, Spirit, Spirit Soul, Material Soul and Intention

Zhang Jiebin stated in Lei Jing Tu Yi - Yiyi(Illustrated Supplementary to the Classified Canon - Application of the Book of Changes to Medicine), "So far as spirit manifestations are concerned, north—water—one is my essence of life, so it is said that the kidney stores essence; south—fire—two is my spirit, so it is said the heart stores spirit; east-wood—three is my spirit soul, so it is said the liver stores spirit soul; west-metal-four is my material soul, so it is said that the lung stores material soul; and centre—earth-fire is my intention, so it is said that the spleen stores intention". This explains the relationship between the generating numbers, the Five Elements as well as the five viscera and essence, spirit, spirit soul, material soul and intention. As the numbers three and two in the River Chart have the same aim for qi, four and one have the same origin of qi and five in the centre governs qi of the four aspects, Zhang Jiebin states in the same book that "spirit and spirit soul are stored in the southeast", "essence and material soul are stored in the northwest", and as earth governs qi of the four aspects, intention is in the centre coupled with the number five.

Heal Yourself With Qi Gong

Heal Yourself With Qi Gong

Qigong also spelled Ch'i Kung is a potent system of healing and energy medicine from China. It's the art and science of utilizing breathing methods, gentle movement, and meditation to clean, fortify, and circulate the life energy qi.

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