Electromagnetic Waves Scattering By Vegetation

2 Plant Modeling by Using L-Systems 644 2.1 Lindenmayer Systems 644 2.2 Turtle Interpretation of L-Systems 646 2.3 Computer Simulations of Stochastic L-Systems and Input Files 649 3 Scattering from Trees Generated by L-Systems Based on Coherent Addition Approximation 654 3.1 Single Scattering by a Particle in the Presence of Reflective Boundary 655 3.1.1 Electric Field and Dyadic Green's Function 655 3.1.2 Scattering by a Single Particle 656 3.2 Scattering by Trees 659 4 Coherent Addition...

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150 200 250 scattering angle (degree) Figure 10.3.4 Phase matrix as a function of scattering angle for ka 0.2, fractional volume 10 , elongation ratio e 1.8, relative permittivity of particles er 3.2. The spheroids are randomly oriented. In the simulations, N 2000 particles are used and the results are averaged over Nr 50 realizations, (a) Pn, (b) P21, (c) Pi 2, and (d) P22. The symbol o represents the dense medium results, and the symbol x represents the independent scattering results. 150 200...

References And Additional Readings

Smelyanskiy, S. Bindiganavale, and J. L. Volakis 1998 , Scattering from relatively flat surfaces using the adaptive integral method, Radio Sci., 33 1 , 7-16. Axline, R. M. and A. K. Fung 1978 , Numerical computation of scattering from a perfectly conducting random surface, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 26 3 , 482-488. Belszynski, E., M. Belszynski, and T. Jaroszewicz 1994 , A fast integral-equation solver for electromagnetic scattering problems, IEEE Ant. and Propagat....

Angular Correlation Function And Detection Of Buried Object

2 Two-Dimensional Simulations of Angular Memory Effect and Detection of Buried Object 553 2.2 Simple and General Derivation of Memory Effect 553 2.3 ACF of Random Rough Surfaces with Different Averaging Methods 555 2.4 Scattering by a Buried Object Under a Rough Surface 557 3 Angular Correlation Function of Scattering by a Buried Object Under a 2-D Random Rough Surface 3.2 Formulation of Integral Equations 565 3.3 Statistics of Scattered Fields 570 3.4 Numerical Illustrations of ACF and PACF...

Random Rough Surface Simulations

1 Perfect Electric Conductor Non-Penetrable Surface 114 1.2 Matrix Equation Diriehlet Boundary Condition 1.3 Tapering of Incident Waves and Calculation of Scattered 1.4 Random Rough Surface Generation 124 1.4.1 Gaussian Rough Surface 124 1.4.2 Fractal Rough Surface 132 1.5 Neumann Boundary Condition MFIE for TM Case 134 2.2 Absorptivity, Emissivity and Reflectivity 141 2.3 Impedance Matrix Elements Numerical Integrations 143 2.4 Simulation Results 145 2.4.1 Gaussian Surface and Comparisons with...

Scattering And Emission By A Periodic Rough Surface

1 Dirichlet Boundary Conditions 62 1.1 Surface Integral Equation 62 1.2 Floquet's Theorem and Bloch Condition 63 1.3 2-D Green's Function in 1-D Lattice 64 1.4 Bistatic Scattering Coefficients 67 2 Dielectric Periodic Surface T-Matrix Method 68 2.1 Formulation in Longitudinal Field Components 69 2.2 Surface Field Integral Equations and Coupled Matrix Equations 74 2.3 Emissivity and Comparison with Experiments 81 3 Scattering of Waves Obliquely Incident on Periodic Rough Surfaces Integral...

Integral Equation Formulations And Basic Numerical Methods

1 Integral Equation Formulation for Scattering Problems 14 1.1 Surface Integral Equations 14 1.2 Volume Integral Equations 17 1.3 Dyadic Green's Function Singularity and Electrostatics 19 3 Discrete Dipole Approximation DDA 27 3.2 Radiative Corrections 29 4 Product of Toeplitz Matrix and Column Vector 37 4.1 Discrete Fourier Transform and Convolutions 38 4.2 FFT for Product of Toeplitz Matrix and Column Vector 42 5 Conjugate Gradient Method 46 5.1 Steepest Descent Method 46 5.2 Real Symmetric...