The point massage can dredge the circulation of qi and blood, clear and activate the meridians and collaterals and strengthen the immunological and disease-resisting abilities of the body. It can also regulate qi and blood, balance yin and yang, enhance the body resistance to eliminate the pathogenetic factors, mobilize the potential energy of the body to achieve the goal of fighting against diseases and prolonging life. However manipulation and a correct selection of points according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine is essential.
The commonly-used points Baihui: on the midline of the head, approximately on the midpoint of the line connecting the apexes of the two ears.
Shangxing: 1 cun directly above the midpoint of the anterior hairline.
Yintang: midway between the medial ends of the two eyebrows.
Taiyang: in the depression about 1 cun posterior to the midpoint between the lateral end of the eyebrow and the outer canthus.
Yuyao: in the middle of the eyebrow directly above the pupil.
Zanzhu: in the depression proximal to the medial end of the eyebrow.
Sizhukong: in the depression at the lateral end of the eyebrow.
Jingming: 0.1 cun lateral and superior to the inner canthus.
Juliao: at the level of the lower border of ala nasi, on the lateral side of the nasolabial groove.
Chengqi: with the eyes looking straight forward, the point is directly below the pupil, between the eye ball and the infraorbital ridge.
Sibai: with the eyes looking straight forward, the point is nearly 1 cun under the pupil, in the depression at the infraorbital foramen.
Yingxiang: in the nasolabial groove, at the level of the midpoint of the lateral border of ala nasi.
Bitong: at the highest point of the nasolabial groove.
Jiache: one finger-breadth anterior and superior to the lower angle of the jaw at the prominence of the masseter muscle when the teeth are clenched.
Dicang: 0.4 cun lateral to the corner of the mouth.
Renzhong: a little above the midpoint of the philtrum, near the nostrils.
Chengjiang: in the depression in the centre of the mentolabial groove.
Tinggong: in the depression shown between the tragus and mandibular joint when the mouth is slightly opened.
Tinghui: anterior to the intertragic notch, at the posterior border of the condyloid process of the mandible.
Yifeng: posterior to the earlobe, in the depression between the mandible and mastoid process.
Fengchi: in the depression between the upper portion of m. sternocleidomas-toideus and m. trapezius, on the same level with the inferior border of the mastoid
Fengfu: 1 cun directly above the midpoint of the posterior hairline, directly below the external occipital protuberance, in the depression between m. trapezius of both sides.
Jingzhong: 2 cun below the midpoint between Fengchi and Yiming, at the posterior of the m. sternocleidomastoideus.
Tianzhu: here it refers to the great occipital nerve at the back of the neck.
Touwei: 0.5 cun within the anterior hairline at the corner of the forehead.
Yangbai: on the forehead, 1 cun directly above the midpoint of the eyebrows.
Shangen: midpoint between the interior corner of the eyes.
Tiantu: in the centre of the suprasternal fossa.
Shanzhong: in the midway between the nipples.
Zhongwan: on the midline of the abdomen, 4 cun above the umbilicus.
Shuifen: on the midline of the abdomen, 1 cun above the umbilicus.
Tianshu: 2 cun lateral to the centre of the umbilicus (the point of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming).
Qihai: on the midline of the abdomen, 1.5 cun below the umbilicus.
Guanyuan: on the midline of the abdomen, 3 cun below the umbilicus.
Zhongji: on the midline of the abdomen, 4 cun below the umbilicus.
Huiyin: between the anus and the scrotum in males and between the anus and the posterior labial commissure in females.
Dazhui: below the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra.
Mingmen: below the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra.
Shenshu: 1.5 cun lateral to the third lumbar vertebra.
Changqiang: midway between the tip of the coccyx and the anus, locating the point in prone position.
Quchi: when the elbow is flexed 90 degrees, the point is in the depression at the lateral end of the transverse cubital crease, midway between Chize and the latera epicondyle of the humerus.
Shousanli: 2 cun below Quchi.
Hegu: the place in the coincident position of the transverse crease of the interphalangeal joint of the thumb with the margin of the web between the thumb and the index finger of the other hand. The point is at the highest spot of the muscle when the thumb and index finger are brought close together.
Waiguan: 2 cun above Yangchi between the radius and ulna.
Zhigou: 1 cun above Waiguan.
Yangchi: on the transverse crease of the dorsum of the wrist, in the depression lateral to the tendon of m. extensor digitorum communis.
Shaoshang: on the radial side of the thumb, 0.1 cun posterior to the corner of the nail.
Neiguan: 2 cun above the transverse crease of the wrist, between the tendons of m. palmaris longus and m. flexor radialis.
Laogong: When the fist is clenched, the point is just between below the ring and the middle fingers, adjacent to the third metacarpal bone.
Zusanli: 3 cun below Dubi, one finger-breadth from the anterior crest of the tibia, in m. tibialis anterior.
Yanglingquan: in the depression anterior and interior to the head of the fibula.
Xuehai: when the knee is flexed, the point is 2 cun above the mediosuperior border of the patella, on the bulge of the medial portion of m. quadriceps femoris.
Yinlingquan: on the lower border of the medial condyle of the tibia, in the
Sanyinjiao: 3 cun directly above the tip of the medial malleolus, on the
Taichong: on the dorsum of the foot, in the depression distal to the junction
Zhaohai: in the depression of the lower border of the medial malleolus.
Xingjian: on the dorsum of the foot between the first and second toe, proximal
to the margin of the web.
Yongquan: on the sole, in the depression when the foot is in plantar flexion, approximately at the junction of the anterior third and posterior two-thirds of the sole.
Point Selection The many points on the human body have their specific location. The accuracy of location of acupoints will affect the therapeutic effect. Great importance has always been attached to precise location of the points by medical practitioners in past ages. At present, commonly used are three methods of point selection: proportional measurement, anatomical landmarks and finger measurement.
2) The commonly-used manipulations of the point massage a. Pressing
This method is divided into pressing with the thumb, pressing with the tips of the four fingers and pressing with the fist. This can be practised by putting the finger(s) on one or more points on the surface of the skin and applying proper pressure. This is applicable to all the points of the body. It has the function of clearing and activating the meridians and collaterals, and dissipating blood stasis and relieving the stagnation and removing the cold and stopping pain.
'b. Digital point pressure
Pressing with strength on the point with the tip of the finger or olecranal part of the bent elbow. This is often used on the points of the waist, back and the four limbs. It has the functions of removing the cold and stopping pain.
Knead the diseased part clockwise or counterclockwise with the palm, the base of the palm, the finger, the back of the hand or hypothenar. Its main functions are to remove local swelling and to eliminate the pathogenic wind and heat.
Clap the diseased part with the palm or hypothenar. This can be performed by a single palm or both palms. It is applied to the shoulers, back, waist, chest, limbs, etc. It can help the circulation of qi, relax the muscles and relieve swelling and pain.
Rubbing the muscles of the diseased part up and down with the palm or the base of the palm with no intermission. It is often used on the waist, the buttocks and the four limbs. To prevent injury, some talcum powder can be used. This method has the function of soothing the liver, calming the liver to stop the wind and regulating qi and blood.
Pushing a certain point with the thumb and other fingers with force. It is applicable to the points on the four limbs. It has the function of inducting g. Rotating
Holding the diseased part with one hand or both hands and shaking. It is applicable to the neck, waist, and joints of the limbs. Its function is to improve the condition of the muscles, skin and joints and promote the activities of the limbs.
Forming a duck-billed shape with the thumb and the index, middle and fourth fingers and pinching the diseased part with force. Then pinch downwards and act i. Twisting
Hold a certain part with the thumb and the index finger and twist it. It is often used to relieve rigidity in the ends of the four limbs and small joints and ensure j. Pressing with force
This method is similar to the pressing of item a, only the degree of pressure is different. Item a is a light pressing and item i is a pressure with force. It is applicable to muscles and tendons, and has the function of dredging the meridians, subduing swelling and stopping pain and removing blood stasis and resolving k. Strumming
As if playing a guitar, move the thumb or other four fingers to and fro on the muscles, tendons, and ligaments of the body. This can promote the blood circulation and remove blood stasis, break up adhesion and relieve spasms.
Press a certain part with the overlapped palms or the tip of the finger with a quick and rhythmic vibration, forming a local vibrating feeling. This is applied to the head, waist and abdomen. It can regulate the nerves and promote the secretion m. Qigong
Direct the qi to the middle Dantian and then to Neiluogong. Release the qi at this point. Put the point on the diseased part or the point to be treated. Then the
Several therapeutic methods of point massage According to the TCM theory, therapeutic methods include both the principles of the treatment and the specific method of the treatment. The principles of point massage are reinforcing the deficiency and reducing excess, strengthening the body's resistance to eliminate pathogenic factors and regulating ying and wei. Following are some basic methods
This method of warming the yang and clearing pathogenic cold is used to treat the disease due to cold of the deficiency type. The disease is located mainly in the interior or both the interior and the exterior. Such manipulations as Qigong, pressing, and kneading can be practised on some fixed points, such as Qihai, Guanyuan, Shenshu and Baliao. It is required that the movement should be soft and swift so that heat can be produced. When the heat goes deep into the skin, muscles or visceral and internal organs, it can warm both the exterior and interior b. The heat-clearing method
This method is often used to clear away pathogenic heat. It is effective in the case of excessive pathogenic heat or pathogenic heat in the interior. Its function is to clear away pathogenic heat, regulate yin and safeguard the body fluid and resolve thirst. As the symptoms of the diseases with a heat nature are very complicated and the pathogenic heat is divided into the heat in Qifen, Xuefen and Yingfen, a careful investigation of the disease before the treatment is important. For coma with a high fever, a quick and strong clearing is essential, otherwise the disease will become critical. For those with deficiency syndrome, clearing plus strengthening the body's resistance should be conducted so as to remove the pathogenic factors. The manipulation should be practised according to the conditions of the disease and the state of the pathogenic heat. Point massage on Renzhong and Shixuan to cure heatstroke can serve as an example.
c. The reinforcing method
This is a method to reinforce impaired qi and blood, yin and yang or visceral and internal organs, so as to support the body's resistance, remove the pathogenic factors, regulate yin and yang and supplement qi and blood. It is often used in cases of insufficiency of qi and blood, deficiency of the spleen and stomach and night sweating and emission and so on. The points selected include Zhongwan, Tianshu, Qihai, Guanyuan, Pishu and Weishu. The manipulations used are pushing and pressing. From the point of view of transmission via meridians, manipulations moving along the direction of the transmission is reinforcement. As to the degree of the stimulation, light stimulation is reinforcement. As for the direction of the blood flow, manipulation with a concentric nature is reinforcement, and clockwise d. The reducing method
This is a method of reducing excess found in such cases as excessive heat in the Sanjiao, vexation and thirst, indigestion, difficulty in urination and defecation. Pushing and kneading are often used first on Shenque and Tianzhu and then on Changqiang. Going against the direction of the meridian transmission is reducing; strong stimulation is reducing; centrifugal manipulation is reducing, and counter-
This method is used to dredge the blockages. It can regulate ying and wei, dredge the meridians, remove the pathogenic factors and induce the production of body fluid. It can solve the problems of generalized swelling, numbness of the muscles and blocked meridians. A manipulation with both strength and gentleness can be used in the treatment. The commonly used methods are pushing and pressing.
f. The mediation method
This method is often used to treat the half exterior and half interior syndromes. The manipulations used are pushing, rubbing and Qigong. These should be done according to the condition of the disease. Its function is to mediate the vital essence of the body.
g. The diaphoretic method
This method is often used to treat diseases with diaphoretics, mainly for the exterior syndromes of the wind-cold type or the wind-heat type. For the cold due to wind-cold, the manipulation should change from lightness to heaviness. When sweating occurs, the purpose of eliminating pathogenic wind and cold is reached. For the cold due to wind-heat, the manipulation should be light and soft and overly heavy stimulation should be avoided. Those points that have the functions of inducing warmness and hotness, eliminating cold and wind, such as Fengchi, Fengfu, Quchi, Hegu, Dazhui and Weizhong, should be selected. The main manipulations used are pushing and pressing.
h. Resolving and dispersing
These two methods of point massage have very satisfactory results. Their main functions are dispersing and resolving. For such visible lesions as tumours, dispersing is used, and for such invisible lesions as pathogenic wind in the abdomen, resolving is used. Mainly pushing, rubbing, kneading and clapping are used to disperse the tumours, sputum stagnation and stagnancy of the turbid qi.
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