1. Most Western governments did not recognize the communist government of Mainland China after the revolution and subsequent control of the mainland in 1949. Further isolation occurred during the Cultural Revolution, which lasted from 1967 to 1976.
2. The term Kung fu, also written Gong fu, originally referred to any great skill. "Kung" means work and time, and "fu," "penetrating heaven." The term has become popularized to mean the martial arts of China, correctly called "ch'uan shu'Vboxing arts, or more recently, "wushu'Vmartial arts. Since the term kung fu is understood so broadly as referring to Chinese martial arts, it will be used synonymously with these last two examples.
3. For more information on the life of Dong Hai-Chuan, refer to Pa Kua: Eight Trigram Boxing by Robert W. Smith and Allen Pittman, Charles Turtle, Inc., 1989.
4. "Ru men" or "inner door" translates as "one who has passed through the door." In English translating as "discipleship," the term indicates formal acceptance into a traditional kung fu sect or family after an initiation (traditionally via a formal Confucian ceremony). Bracford Tyrey and Marcus Brinkman translate the term as "inner sanctum." See "The Luo-Shu as Taiji boxing's secret inner sanctum training method." Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 5, No. 2. pp 74-79.
5. The Kung Fu "family," the original rank system. In use long before belt ranks were ever conceived of, seniority was determined by one's position within the kung fu "group or family." In this hierarchy, the familial relationship (brother, uncle, and so forth) is preceded by "Shr" (teacher). Shr-Fu (Sifu in Cantonese) could be translated as "group/ family" father," Shr-Shung as "group/ family" older brother" Shr-Shu as "group/ family" uncle.
6. The given lineage name indicates the position in the formal lineage transmission. The preface Yung indicates the fifth position. This lineage authentication system was left in the form of a poem by the art's founder,
Dong Hai-Chuan. A lineage name is derived from each respective place in the poem, a word for each generation from first to twentieth. Dong designed the system because of his fear that people from different sects and sub-sects would not be true to his own generation. Each Chinese character in the poem indicates the lineage position of the person holding the given name. Author Liu's given name is Shan Ping. Translated as Peaceful Mountain, this name shows his position as fourth-generation inheritor. The poem in English reads: "Prosperity as wide as the sea. Longevity as enduring as the mountains. A strong art makes firm the foundation of the country and makes glorious, prosperous, and radiant the land. Through morality and virtue, wu chi is established." In Chinese, the generational names derived from this poem read: Hai Fu Shou Shan Yung QiangI TingKuo Chi Ch 'angMingKuang Ta Lu Tao Te Chien Wu Chi.
7. Decrease in nerve function can ultimately lead to neuropathy. Exercise that enhances blood supply to an area can reverse or prevent this deleterious condition.
8. Tao has been translated, defined as, or compared with the following: divine principle, God's will, Buddha mind, higher self, and similar terms. Taoists, believing that the "true name cannot be named," assumed humility and ignorance with respect to the great divine mystery, and purposefully did not define the term, preferring instead this enigmatic word, translatable as "path."
9. Classically, three levels of internal power are listed: obvious, covert, and mysterious. However, since the latter two fall into energetic definitions, as opposed to physical mechanics, they will be grouped together as different points along a Taoist-yogic energetic continuum.
10. "Horizontal swing" is the throwing of a punch from the shoulder or torquing of the waist, particularly with the rear foot heel off the ground when delivering a strike.
11. The eight extra meridians cross and communicate with standard acupuncture meridians, but are not easily influenced by acupuncture. They are: 1. The governing channel, which runs upward along the spine from the perineum and over the crown. 2. The conception vessel, which runs from the perineum anterior over the center of the chest and ends beneath the lip. 3. The chong channel, which runs from the perineum through the abdomen along the kidney channel to the diaphragm. 4.The dai (belt) channel, which runs transversely around the waist. 5. Theyang qiao, which travels up the outside of the leg over the lateral aspects of the mid torso and terminates at the base of the skull. 6. The yin qiao, which starts inside of the leg at the heel, ascends the inside of the leg, and goes across the front of the chest and terminates just lateral to the bridge of the nose. 7. The yang wei, which begins at the outside of the heel, runs upward along the outside of the leg, over the lateral aspects of the mid torso and terminates at the base of the skull. 8. Yin wei, which starts at inside of the shin, goes up the inside of the leg through the inguinal groove, and crosses the chest and terminates above the adam's apple.
12. Although widely used by Sinologists, the broader translation of "applied" compared to "religious" Taoism may be more appropriate when speaking about the development of arts and sciences. The characters taojiao literally mean Taoistic teachings.
13. Outer alchemists used furnaces and various types of early laboratory equipment to produce the elixir.
14. A high percentage of Newton's existing work in his own handwriting is on the subject of alchemy. European alchemy sought transmutation of base metals into gold. An interesting parallel with Chinese alchemy is that both styles used language that included the spiritual as part of the alchemical process. The Western alchemists couched their writings in spiritual terms, and some people now believe that their practices were designed to be an allegory to spiritual development.
15. Tien Yuan Fu Yao Ching, quoted by Needham, Joseph, in Science and Civ ilization in China, Vol. 5, p. 66.
16. Outer and inner schools, blending traditions, were not separate until later.
17. Cibot, Notice du Cong Fu de Les Chinois des Bonzes Tao-see. Memoires con cernant L 'Histoire, Les Sciences Les Arts De Chinois Par Les Missionaires De Pekin. 1778-1779.
18. Smith, Robert, Chinese Boxing, Masters and Methods.
19. Smith, Robert, Hsing I and Mind.
20. A discussion about Ching and sexuality by the famous Cheng Man-Ching is recorded by R. Lowenthal in There Are No Secrets: Professor ChengMan-ChingandHis Tai Chi Chuan, North Atlantic Books, 1991, pp. 101-105.
21. Yuan Chhi Lun, author unknown, quoted from Needham, Joseph, Science and Civilization in China, vol 5. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
22. Ko Hung, Pao Pu Tzu. This portion using translation from Needham, Joseph, p. 211.
23. Wong and Wu, The History of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Quantine Ser vice, 1936: 72-73.
24. Huang Tsung-Hsi, Nei Chia Ch'uan Fa. From reference cited by Wile, Douglas, Lost T'ai Chi Classics from the Late Ching Dynasty. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996, p. xvi.
25. There is the popular belief about Chang San-Feng as the supposed creator of several internal styles, particularly tai chi. He is said to have existed in the twelfth, thirteenth, or fourteenth century; however, there is essentially no scholarly support that he even existed, much less that he created an internal style martial art.
26. Ch'ang Nai-Chou Ch'ang-Shih Wu Chi, edited by Hsu Chen, from references cited by Wile, Douglas, p. 9.
28. Naquin, Susan. Shantung Rebellion: The WangLun Uprising of'1774. Yale
University Press, New Haven, 1981.
29. Watson, Buton. The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, p. 340.
31. Robert W. Smith, HsingI: Chinese Mind-Body Boxing. Kodansha Intl., Tokyo, 1974, p. 111.
3 3. Yang Cheng-Fu, grandson of the founder of the Yang Style. Story about the episode in his life quoted from Grandmasters, China Direct Publishing, Spring 1991, p. 23.
34. Fish, Ken, "Defining 'Internal' Kung Fu," Pa Kua Chang Journal, vol #2,
No. 2 and No. 3. Highview Publications, "Jan/Feb 1992 & March/April
1992." In the article, "Internal Boxing and Taoist Alchemy," several issues later, author Bracy argued that the Internal martial arts referred to a spe-cfic internal training tradition. See Pa Kua Journal, vol. 3 No. 6, Sept/Oct
35. Robert Becker, M.D., The Body Electric, William Morrow & Company, Inc., New York, NY: 1985, pp. 235-236.
37. The Mystery of Chi, PBS: Bill Moyer's "Healing and the Mind," 1993.
38. Pa Kua Chang Journal, Jan/Feb 1992, Vol. 2, #2. According to Huang
Chin-Shen if one did not know about Wang being a I-Kuan Taoist "then chances are that he did not know much about the 'inner teachings' reserved for selected students."
39. Smith, Robert, Chinese Boxing: Masters and Methods, p. 67.
40. Although there are several ways to explain their reactions, I have found criticism of these examples by some colleagues when I cite this story as meaning something significant. Although special skills, such as the ability to draw a mark on one's body without physical contact would be a foolish goal of twenty or more years of practice, legitimate demonstrations such as described provide the basis from which to develop models to replicate and test an internal energy hypothesis.
41. Eisenberg, David, M.D., Energy Medicine in China: Defining a Research Strategy which Embraces the Criticism of Skeptical Colleagues, from a talk presented at the Fetzer Foundation Conference: "Energy Fields, Meridians, Chi and Device Technology," May 11-14; Noetic Sciences Review, Spring 1990.
42. Now famous as the master who throws students around without much contact on the previously mentioned PBS production, The Mystery of Chi.
44. Wile, p. 60. Parallel development in T'ai Chi. Ch'en Hsin wrote Chen Style Tat Chi Ch'uan between 1908 and 1919. Douglas Wile has made an extensive examination of the historicity of the Yang style. In discussing the Chen literature he calls it "the only work comparable in the scope and detail of its medical, metaphysical, and meditational content." An extensive discussion on the possible nexus that produced the t'ai chi "Forty Chapter" mix of martial arts, medicine and meditation is included in his work. See page 60, Wile, Douglas. Lost Classics from the Ching Dynasty, University of New York Press, Albany, NY, 1996.
45. Tao Te Ching, Chapter 50.
46. Watson, Burton (translator) The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, Chapter
47. T'ai Chi and Xing Yi had developed as martial arts before application of Taoist physical principles and yogas merged with martial arts. However many teachers of these arts, especially in Beijing and surrounding major cities, incorporated Taoist "internal" principles, especially after publication of books on the subject by Sun Lu-Tang.
48. Blofeld, John, The Secret and Sublime: Taoist Mysteries and Magic. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York, NY, 1973, p. 125
49. Note that some martial art researchers believe that the martial art of Ba Gua has nothing to do with the / Ching at all, other than a shared name, perhaps selected as a lucky omen.
50. The term sung, often translated as "softness," has no exact equivalent in English. It refers to "springiness" or "tenacity." See Bracy, John, "Ba Gua
Mechanics" Pa Kua Chang Journal, Sept/Oct 1996, High "View Publications.
51. Te has been translated as "power." This character, although often translated as "virtue" applies to a Universal power. It appears in the title of the Tao Te Ching; thus the text is often translated as the "Classic of the Tao and its Power." R. L. Wing translates the text as the "The Tao of Power." According to Wing:
"The early Chinese regarded the planting of seeds as te, and te came to mean stored energy or potentiality, and sometimes magic power. Not until the widespread popularity of Confucian ideas a century later, did te begin to take on the meaning of social imposed moral conduct. This was eventually translated into English as 'virtue.'" See R. L. Wing, Tao of Power, p. 9, Doubleday/Dolphin, 1986.
52. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi; Beyond Freedom and Anxiety, p. 81.
55. Herrigel, Eugene, Zen in the Art of Archery, Translated by R.EC. Hall,
Vintage Books, New York, 1971, pp. 41-42.
56. Wilhelm/Baynes, The I Ching or Book of Changes, p. 83.
57. "Telegraph" is defined as subtle tension and cocking of an arm or leg before a strike is launched. It is telegraphing because its preparation is noticeable.
58. Wai San He, a Taoist yogic physical and alchemical principle, involves physical correspondences in the body, namely the relationships between the wrist and ankle, the elbow and knee, and the shoulder and hip.
59. "Don't use force to conquer the universe, use of force is followed by loss of strength. This is not the way of nature. That which goes against the way of nature will not last long." Tao Te Ching, translated by Gia-Fu Feng and Jane English, Chapter 30.
60. Why do surfers make better martial artists? Over the last twenty years of operating a martial arts school on the Southern California coast I have observed that many internal martial arts students who excelled in combat applications were surfers. As far as internal martial arts go, the surfers' physique and training embody the ideal: wiriness, achieving connection, coiling and rooting while in motion. This training is no doubt a crossover skill of their surfing sport which requires balance and rootedness to a narrow piece of fiberglass being tossed about by a wave, where fear, and resulting tension, immediately brings defeat.
61. David Holly, Filling a Void with "Qigong" in China Los Angeles Times,
October 16, 1997, H8.
62. Belief plays an important role in healing. Placebo studies show that about a third of the time people get better just because they believe in the pill or therapy.
63. Chien Han Shu PPT/NP, quoted from Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilization in China, vol. 5.
64. Ware, James (translator), TheNeiPien ofKoHung(Pao-p'u tzzu), p. 122.
65. This portion following translation from Needham, Joseph, Science and
66. Waley, Arthur (translator), From quote in Pao P'u Tzu, in The Way and its Power, Grove Press, New York, 1958, p. 122.
67. Smith, Robert, Pa Kua: Eight Trigram Boxing, p. 12.
68. Width of circle. Size ranges depending on purpose. In general, a smaller circle is more difficult to work since the body's angles must change and conform to more challenging curve relationships of the circle. In the qi gong exercise shown here, Master Liu demonstrates the exercise on an (approximately) 8 foot diameter circle.
69. Author's note: When I was first taught this term, it was difficult to get ver ification or insight into the meaning of the term "walking the horse." Even though I had the characters written down in my notebook, it wasn't until recently that I was able to validate and gain insight into the meaning. The insight did not come from a Ba Gua master, but from one of my California students who had experience handling horses. To him these exercises, part of which involved leaning your back against an opponent, immediately made sense. It appears that every equestrian knows that if a horse isn't being cooperative, and doesn't want to move, push him as hard as you like and the animal will only resist. However, common to horse trainers is the principle of resting your back on the side of the animal and applying lateral pressure from your weight. With this method the animal can be moved easily. Thus, the concept must have come from those familiar with horses, a standard means of vehicular movement in turn of the century China. The principle works well for close quarter combat, where you may suddenly find the necessity of moving and controlling an opponent with your back in contact with the adversary, particularly in crowded, multiple opponent situations.
70. Intercostal vs. trapezius. Instead of isolated muscle groups (ie. pivoting from waist, torquing and throwing the shoulder) internal arts instead rely on total body unity, where subtle extension of the entire body is essential. Hence intercostal expansion replaces trapezius (upper shoulder) rising.
71. Tswan or "drilling" has also been called the "Canton corkscrew." See Gilby,John, Secret Fighting Arts of the World, p. 63.
72. Special thanks to Dr. Vince Black for his suggestions and sharing his reallife research findings in this area.
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