The simplest exercises are done in a position with feet shoulder width apart and weight evenly distributed on both feet. This is called pingbu. On next stage, we do most exercises in a position which is called dingbabu.
Now you will try to do the same shi li exercise which was described in previous chapter, but in dingbabu position.
For a moment you can forget about hands movement and focus on legs and torso. Stand in dingbabu position, with weight mostly on back leg (front 3, back 7).
Your torso is now not in frontal, but slightly diagonal position. While doing this exercise, there is no rotation around vertical axis.
In pingbu position your body was pushing forward, slightly leaning forward, with some standing up (stretching springs between head and both heels). This is very similar in dingbabu position, but now it is only about one of legs (the rear one). Body is leaning and pushing forward, rear leg is straightening, there is feeling as if stretching spring between head and heel of rear foot.
When doing this movement, take care that shank of front leg is not changing position and front knee is not moving forward (but front leg is somewhat straightening). You can imagine as if your front leg was buried in ground, to level just below knee.
You should feel that while doing the movement, ball of your front foot is pressing more and more on the ground. Stop the movement, when distribution of weight is 50/50 (front 5, back
Then body is pushing backward, moving again to vertical position. At the same time rear leg is bending, as if you were sitting down (overcoming resistance of an elastic stick below your buttocks). Ball and toes of front foot are pressing and pushing against ground. Imagine that you are stretching a spring between head and toes of front foot. Knee of front leg should not move back (it is only bending). The final position is the same as starting position (front 3, back 7).
While doing forward movement, there should be idea of compressing springs between your both legs, and while doing backward movement, idea of stretching them - exactly like when you do shi li in pingbu position.
Now doing the above described action, add also hands movements which were described in 7th chapter. Because your torso is in slightly diagonal position, one palm is a bit more to the front than the other (the difference of about fingers length).
At beginning you must practice slowly, carefully, remembering about trying to feel the force (overcoming resistance) at each point of the movement, and about trying to keep relax at the same time. When it will not be difficult for you anymore, you can move to next stage, which is called "seeking non movement in movement". This is not just slow movement. You are doing the movement, keeping the feeling of strength, but at each point of this movement you should be ready to stop it. So actually there will appear some slight vibration - continuous oscillation between states of relax and some slight tension.
All described images (springs, elastic stick etc.) are only a tool which should help you to develop right perception of body and strength and proper reactions. What is important here is not visualizing, but using some images, suggestions, hints, in order to develop right feeling, clear perception of body, movement and strength. A teacher will help you to verify your progress. You will also be gradually able to estimate your progress better, when you actually make progress and learn more advanced training methods and you understand how they are related to those basic ones.
QI - MAGIC POWER?
According to written sources, the concept of qi (ch'i, ki), as the primeval subtle matter being basis of everything, was developed during Springs and Autumns period (722-481 BC). It had became one of the main ideas used in all branches of traditional Chinese science.
Seeing it from one side, philosophically, mystically, you can see qi as a basis of everything. From the other side, in practical use in various fields, in various branches of traditional science, the concept can have various meanings. We should not approach this issue with too naive attitude, without seeing it in various contexts.
Some people see qi as a kind of magic power. They think that this is some specific kind of energy or subtle, ethereal matter with unusual properties, and if they will be able to master controlling it (thanks to learning qigong), many miraculous abilities and skills will become available for them. This is quite naive view. Actually the concept of qi is not very precise, and it has very wide range of use, like modern concept of energy. We should not see it too simply. As we can discuss various kinds of energy, the classical Chinese theories say about various kinds of qi. The concept of qi is used not only by doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine, qigong masters and martial arts experts, but it is also used in traditional arts theory and actually in any branch of classical Chinese science and culture. Of course it has a bit different meaning in each of those contexts.
Let's have a look at one example. We often speak about power or energy of expression of a poem. But nobody thinks about using this energy to propel a car with combustion engine. However people who don't know about Chinese culture and science, whenever they see the word qi used, they immediately jump to conclusions similar to this propelling a car with energy of artistic expression. This is because they don't realize how the meaning of the concept of qi changes with change of context.
For example there is the concept of qi developed in the context of traditional Chinese medicine. This is a whole complex of medical theories, where this idea is used. There is some common field between those theories and the use of the qi concept in medicine and in qigong. However in qigong there are some more subjective elements, related to feeling, to perception, which are also described with the word qi.
Qigong exercises are widely used in Chinese martial arts. In internal systems training methods similar to qigong had became the basis of practice. So we can find there some elements directly related to the basics of Chinese medicine, and also some subjective elements which are specific for qigong. But in martial arts we have next specific elements - expression of fighting spirit, expression of movement related to characteristics of animals and phenomena of nature, perception and expression of physical power. The concept of qi is used also when we are talking about these aspects. And of course there is also issue of body mechanics. Centuries of experience made possible developing principles and training methods which enable very efficient use of body.
But in old times the Chinese could not use such kind of theoretical apparatus, which would enable simple relating some theoretical concepts to various practical issues in the way, as we can use for example the principle of leverage, when explaining working of a heavy industry crane and working of human body. The only possibility was to transmit some achievements through direct teaching and correction during the training process. Many things were described by using the concept of qi. However those specific descriptions very often couldn't help much with relating some principles to other fields. In various schools similar phenomena could be described in various ways, although many people would think that it shouldn't be so, if seemingly common concepts were used. So we should be aware that it just wasn't exactly the same kind of concepts as we use in modern science. Realizing this is very important in order to avoid too many misinterpretations. We should know, that one of many aspects of the concept of qi is what we call mechanics, and when using old theories, this aspect couldn't be explained in such a way, that it would be easy to use the same theory for something else than what was described. It just wasn't this kind of scientific theory.
Now some people tend to just put concepts of modern science and those of traditional Chinese science together, not realizing that they are not consistent with each other. In many cases, when the traditional theory aims at explaining something related to what we call mechanics, these people will not able to understand and appreciate the actual transmission of neijia masters, concentrating on empty slogans and thinking that if word qi was used, it for sure must be something outside mechanics.
Some reason for misunderstandings being so common is that actually in traditional Chinese internal arts all those aspects are in some way interrelated. In the same exercise and its description, when the concept of qi is used, we can often find elements which are related to traditional Chinese medicine, to subjective perception and to mechanics at the same time. It makes people think of qi as one homogenous thing, not seeing various aspects of it. In result learning what masters of internal arts actually transmitted becomes very difficult for them.
The issue of developing supernatural abilities is also related to qigong. Some people believe in those abilities, and other do not. But this is not important. First of all we should realize, that there is not very direct relation like qigong = supernatural abilities. Various kinds of qigong have various goals, theories and characteristics. The concept of qi in theories of various qigong schools is not used in exactly the same way. Those who know more on this subject will not say that qi = magic powers.
And still much bigger misunderstanding is thinking about direct link between internal martial arts and supernatural powers. This is not the actual transmission of skills characteristic for neijia. Those who are looking for this in neijia are on quite wrong path. They are trying to find something else than those systems actually offer, and they neglect what is really there, what is the core of neijia. In result they are not able to make much progress. Their knowledge of neijia is limited to fantastic speculations. And the view that qi = magic powers is really at basis of those misunderstandings.
So we should realize, that the concept of qi has aspect of mystical unity. This is something like unified theory of everything. But in fact there is nothing practical in it. This is nothing more than just assuming that some unity is at basis of everything. But this is not the actual Chinese medical science, qigong or neijia.
Science means differentiating. This is not only about western science, modern science, but also about classical Chinese science. We should realize this to avoid approaching the offer of traditional Chinese science and philosophy with too much naivety.
Western science and traditional Chinese science are two different systems, two paradigms. We should not take out some element of one and try to fit it mechanically into the other. Most of the educated people realize what differences there are between various languages. That meaning of similar concepts in various languages is not exactly the same. That sometimes long description in one language is necessary, while in some other language only one word is needed to express the same. When we know this, avoiding too many misunderstanding, when talking about classical Chinese science, will be easier. New valuable things are often created thanks to contact between various traditions. But deep understanding of both sides is important. Only then avoiding the kind of misunderstandings which are now often related to neijia will be possible.
Yiquan was created by a Chinese, in China, on basis of classical internal art of xingyiquan. But impact of the culture and science of the West was important impulse for its development. This western influence resulted in some critical attitude toward the tradition. Yiquan appeared when the East and the West met. The concepts and methods were verified and improved. And this is being continued, because the basic idea of quanxue (science of fist, as Wang Xiangzhai used to call it) is that there is no limit for the development of the science, of course also the science of martial art.
Wang Xiangzhai was using the concept of qi in early period, when he wrote "The right path of Yiquan". But in later book "Central pivot of the way of fist" (also known as "Theory of dachengquan"), representative for more mature version of yiquan, he did not use this and many other traditional concepts anymore. Gradually a new system of concepts and methods, which is more approachable by modern people and which can be easier interpreted from the point of view of modern science, was developed. The basic idea was, that while concepts and methods were changed, the actual values of traditional systems should not be lost, but preserved and taken to a new, higher plane. Although the concept of qi was removed, but what was important behind it, in the context specific for martial arts, including internal arts, was preserved. We are just trying to express the theory in a way which doesn't lead to so many misunderstandings.
Chinese characters International transcription Old English transcription
The steps exercises which are done in the same way as shi li are called moca bu - friction steps. It is said that moca bu is shi li for legs.
Stand in dingbabu position, but in such a way, that your torso is placed frontally in relation to the main direction of movement and your feet are standing on a line placed diagonally in relation to the main line of movement. Weight is mostly on rear leg (front 3, back 7). Put your both wrists on your hips or buttocks as in the resting posture. Basic intention and feelings should be similar as in static exercises. Keep the state of relax, and at the same time feeling of some elastic strength in your whole body.
Start from shifting your weight slowly onto front leg. The movement and feelings are very much like those in shi li exercise in dingbabu position. Rear foot is pushing ground (with some tendency to press with ball of your foot - ankle joint is working like a spring), rear leg is slowly straightening (remember not to straighten it completely), head is leading upward and forward. You should feel as if you were stretching a spring between your head and heel of your rear foot. Body is slightly leaning and is pushing forward. You should feel as if moving in water or some thicker liquid, overcoming resistance.
Unlike in shi li exercises in dingbabu position, here you will not finish the movement in front 5/back 5 position, but you will continue it, until most of weight is on front leg. This is called front 7/back 3. Actually more than 70% of weight is on front leg.
When you are doing this movement, you should feel that front foot is more and more pressing on the ground. Heel, which at beginning is slightly lifted, is gradually moving down on ground. But there still should be tendency to accent pressing more with ball and toes. You should feel as if compressing springs between both legs. Knee is moving slightly, but this movement meets some limiting resistance.
When you finish this stage of movement, heel of rear foot is raising slightly (becoming "empty"), you are still pressing ground with ball and toes of rear foot, until weight is shifted completely on front leg. Then lift rear foot. Although heel raises earlier than rest of the foot, remember not to lift your heel too high. Imagine that your foot is in a shoe without laces, and the shoe is in mud. You want to pull your foot, together with the shoe, out of the mud. If you lift your heel too high, you will pull your foot out, but the shoe will remain in the mud.
Remember to keep feeling of overcoming resistance all the time. It is as if your were moving in water or in mud. Head is as if „supporting ceiling", and your hips and buttocks are as if sinking and "sitting down".
Now move this foot forward (remember not to straighten knee completely).
Now move this foot forward (remember not to straighten knee completely).
After moving forward, move the foot and leg to the side. While moving your foot slightly above ground, you should have idea and feeling as if your foot and whole leg were moving in water or some thicker liquid, which is creating resistance. Think that your whole body is in water or other liquid. When you are moving your foot above ground, your whole body is pushing forward, all the time overcoming resistance. Also when you move your leg and foot to the side, your body should still push forward - so at that time also your leg is not only moving to the side, but simultaneously pushing forward. You should feel resistance from side and from front on your leg.
Then step down, putting toes and ball of your foot on ground (heel "empty") and shift some small part of weight on it (front 3, back 7), as if pressing it into mud.
After this, start shifting weight onto front leg, in the same way as it was described above.
Moca bu should be done is the same way as shi li - slowly, carefully, so at each point of movement you can check if you are keeping feeling of relaxed strength. You can imagine that you are moving on ground with many unstable plates or on floor with old, rotten boards. So you must be very careful and alert, being ready to react if it turns out that the ground is not stable or firm enough.
I only described forward steps here. Of course this exercise is done also with backward steps. Actually basics needed for moving in any direction are included in moca bu exercises. After some time, when you understand the principles, you can move to free steps practice.
Zhan zhuang andyiquan are based on the valuable achievements of classical Chinese culture and science. Stress is put on self-improvement, seeking harmony, working with mind and body simultaneously. A practitioner can gradually better and better understand the concepts related to Taoism or Chan (Zen) Buddhism, getting the right idea what for example Taoist monks were actually talking about when describing their practices with use of traditional concepts.
It should be clear, that by teaching zhan zhuang and yiquan we want to offer something valuable to normal people. People who were educated in environment of certain culture, who have their own views and religion.
Eastern forms of exercises or martial arts can offer the people of the West something which can be used by them. But these systems should not be seen as kinds of religion. These methods and systems were not seen as a religion in their original environment. They were practiced by people of various beliefs and views, including Taoist and Buddhist monks.
But even for the Buddhist or Taoist monks these exercise systems where not their actual religions. It was just a part of their life and religious practices. Of course it had to be related on the plane of theoretical basis to principles of their religion. Some of these practices were designed to help to achieve the goals of spiritual development. But some other concentrated more on cultivating health. Health was seen as something necessary for someone, who had to engage in many years intensive spiritual pursuit.
Some monks, both Buddhist and Taoist, practiced also martial arts. In some historical periods it was necessary. Sometimes they had to defend temples against robbers (in some periods the temples had accumulated a lot of wealth) or fight for existence in periods of persecutions. Monks transporting some relics from one temple to another were always in risk of being assaulted. On the other hand, after some wars or uprisings, very often those from the defeated side had to escape and hide, and some of them found their refuge in temples, becoming monks, or pretending to be monks.
The martial arts practiced in the temples, were of course based on some theories consistent with principles of religion. There occurred some mixing of the methods for spiritual development and health practices with martial arts training. But health practices or martial arts were only a small part of something bigger. Of course they were not in contradiction with the basic principles of spiritual development of certain religion. But despite conformity with more general concepts and rules of the spiritual practices, health practices and martial arts as such were not seen by the monks as the actual way of spiritual development, as an autonomous method leading to highest spiritual achievements.
You should be aware of this, if you want to use in reasonable way what qigong, taijiquan, yiquan or other Chinese systems offer. You should not seek goals founded only on some false premises being result of gossip, movie fiction or dishonest marketing.
So if you want to learn, to develop, to improve, qigong, taijiquan, zhan zhuang or yiquan can offer you something valuable. You will train mind and body, you will improve character, you well learn to know yourself. Many concepts of Taoism and Buddhism will become easier to understand for you. But you should not see qigong or martial arts as your new religion, something which would give you answers to all questions and would solve all problems. If you will look after this in qigong or martial arts, you could easily become a pray for some dangerous sects.
For those practicing internal martial arts it used to bee obvious that practicing them could improve health and help to stay healthy until old age. At beginning of 20th century in China, when popularity of taijiquan (tai chi) was growing, these benefits became known to more people. As for yiquan, this aspect of training started attracting more people in 1940s. In 1950s some stress on this side of yiquan helped to popularize basic training methods more widely. Yiquan founder Wang Xiangzhai was able to make living by working as a teacher of zhan zhuang method in hospitals in Beijing and later in Baoding. His student Yu Yongnian made some preliminary research and tests which confirmed therapeutic value of this method and helped to make it accepted by medical circles in China. Wang Xiangzhai's daughter - Wang Yufang became especially famous as a representative of the zhan zhuang method of yiquan, helping many people to get rid of health problems. This health cultivating aspect is also important in the teachings of schools which offer studying yiquan as a complete system.
People with various chronic illnesses often come to the so called consultation stations (fudaozhan) in many parks in many cities in China, where they can learn and practice methods like zhan zhuang, shi li, moca bu. Often, when their health improves, they start learning also the more advanced methods of yiquan.
In hospitals, those who are not able to do other forms of exercises, or even to walk, can start from doing the lying on bed postures, sitting postures, gradually, when their health improves and body strengthens, moving to half supported standing postures, normal standing postures and other forms of practice.
At the first stage stress is put on static exercises, especially in standing position, hence common calling this therapy zhan zhuang. But according to needs, also lying on bed, sitting and half supported postures and moving exercises are used.
This method doesn't focus on treating one part. It is based on affecting the whole, trying to restore some kind of harmony, using natural body forces to improve health. Exercises are adjusted according to specific situation of a patient. But it doesn't mean that some posture is a tool to treat specific illness, that this posture has therapeutic properties "assigned" to specific health problem. Wang Xiangzhai himself stressed that such a view comes from a misunderstanding. Thanks to many years of practice he was able to tell which postures are usually more often used for people with some illnesses, but it is not the same as assigning specific therapeutic properties to specific posture.
Right using and adjusting zhan zhuang exercises, according to patient's situation needs a lot of experience in using this kind of therapy and is related to modifying exercises and way of executing them according to actual patient's reaction, the changes of his state and his sensations. I will only give a few very simple examples here, to make it easier to understand the perspective on which this kind of adjusting exercises according to needs is based.
For beginners these exercises can be tiring, so time of practice is rather short. But someone who practices already for some longer time will make practice sessions longer, without feeling tiredness. Beginner will use less demanding postures, advanced practitioner can focus on some more intensive exercises (e.g. lower postures).
Someone weak (for example because of illness) will practice for shorter time at one session and will use less demanding (less intensive) exercises, and when his/her health improves and body strengthens, he/she can practice longer and use more intensive exercises.
People seriously ill sometimes are not able to do standing practice, so depending on their condition they can use half supported postures, sitting postures or in some cases only lying on bed postures.
Some health problems or injuries may make it impossible to practice some specific postures. So choosing appropriate posture or modifying a standard posture may be needed.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
In China there are many various forms of exercises known by a common name of qigong. They are based on various concepts and use various methods, putting stress on different elements, seen in a certain methods as crucial for achieving positive results. But it can be noticed that despite this great diversity, the achieved results are in most cases very similar. It makes you think what really decides that these methods are efficient, which elements are really important and which are not?
Common element characteristic for almost all qigong methods (also for taijiquan), which are used for cultivating health, is mixing together some mental focus (attention is naturally, without forcing it, focused on body - element of mind and body coordination), some kind of relax and some moderate effort. Even very simple methods, if they contain right mixture of these three elements, can bring positive results. Hence growing popularity of the quite simple zhan zhuang method, which is part of yiquan.
In yiquan and zhan zhuang method we don't use classical concepts, which could not be easily understood and accepted by contemporary people. We don't talk about certain points or channels (those which are used in acupuncture). There is no need to use the term qi. Thanks to this, these exercises are perfect offer for people who are not too much convinced by traditional Chinese theories and concepts.
Zhan zhuang method, alike other, more complex forms of qigong, is based on seeing a human being as a unity, where all elements are interrelated and interdependent. The basic assumption is that there is some kind of harmony, which should be guarded, as disturbing and destroying the natural harmony causes negative effects. When illness appears, you should think not only about treating the ill part, but try to affect the whole in a way which leads to regaining the harmony. Body has some ability of resistance against pathological factors, and self regulating toward regaining the state of health. The exercises should help strengthen and maintain this natural ability.
When yiquan and zhan zhuang will become more popular all over world, there will be more possibility of scientific research, which will allow to learn more about these exercises, and use them even more efficiently. Here I will only point to some aspects, noticed by Chinese experts.
Cerebral cortex is controlling the whole nervous system, directing and coordinating functions of all organs. Excessive activation and in result exhaustion of parts of cerebral cortex will lead to disorder. Various functions of body will suffer, which often leads to pathological changes. And the illness or disorders of functioning of some organs are source of signals, which can cause even greater disorder of functioning of cerebral cortex. Meditation, taijiquan, qigong, zhan zhuang help to break this cycle. They let the cerebral cortex rest and regain efficient functioning.
While doing zhan zhuang or shi li exercises, your breath should be slow, deep, natural, flowing freely. There is no stress on controlling breathing. But observing other demands of exercises (e.g. keeping arms in certain position, together with relax and free breathing) will cause breathing naturally become more abdominal, without artificial limiting natural functions of the chest.
When you do standing exercises, oxygen consumption increases, and breathing responds naturally to this demand - at beginning it becomes faster and slightly deeper, then slower but at the same time much deeper. This should not be artificially controlled.
Stress is put on relaxing whole body, which helps improving blood circulation. In case of standing postures, there is some moderate effort, which causes some increase of the rate of pulse. After finishing the exercise, the pulse rate is not dropping immediately. There is no sudden expansion of the right atrium, which happens when you suddenly stop typical intensive kinds of training.
While doing sitting or lying on bed postures, oxygen consumption is usually decreasing. Breathing is still deep, but much slower. But in case of some very weak people, some variants of those postures can be intensive enough to cause effects usually typical for standing postures.
Deep breathing helps in improving blood transportation (blood circulation is result not only of the hearth working, but breathing and body movements, especially legs movements, do also play important role) and creates massaging effect on internal organs. Rhythm of calm breathing is also a positive factor stimulating nervous system.
In this small book I have only introduced a few examples of exercises from which beginners start their study. If you want to study the complete system, fully enjoying what it offers, you will learn next training methods, you will gradually better and better understand relation between them, the deep principles of the system and you will be able to use it to develop abilities useful in various fields of human activity.
In zhan zhuang you will work with various situations of "relative non movement', you will try to feel strength in basic directions and then while changing directions. You will develop and deepen the feeling of unified strength - in whole body and in all directions. This will be a state of alertness and being ready to act, using any part of your body.
Doing basic zhan zhuang exercises you will gradually come closer and closer to the state which the yiquan founder Wang Xiangzhai described:
"As if you were floating in the air. You start experiencing strength and start learning testing it. In your whole body there is a balanced expanding force, All surfaces are diagonal. You feel as if standing on a cloudfloating in the air, Your breath is very subtle. You feel harmonious comfort, You are as if astounded. Mind is clear, without disturbing thoughts, Focused, as if listening to raindrops gently falling on ground. Whole body agile, as if empty, If a feather falls on it, it will not be able to stay there. If form is visible, you are as if flow of water, If form is not visible, you are as if pure air. Spirit is soft, as if you were drunk, As if you were floating in water. Silent in the space of universe. Empty and agile, with stable mind. Body as if a big melting furnace, Everything is melting in it. Natural changes happen inside mind, Breath is calm, you are listening to the silence. "
In more advanced practice you will seek state which Wang described as:
"Body balanced, empty and agile, spirit should be full, you are vigilant like a leopard walking in fog, you are agile like an attacking rhinoceros, like a galloping horse, like a dragon. Head straight, you feel some pressure on top of your head, whole body is pulsating, as if dancing, everything is connected, toes as if grasping ground, knees as if embracing something and at the same time pressing outside, there is also some lifting upwardforce, heels slightly raised. You feel a force as if a tornado was about to pull a tree out of ground, as if you were a dragon which landedfor a moment, ready to fly again, ready to twist and sway. You feel power great as if heaven and earth were fighting. When you move, you are like a fierce tiger, as if you intend to crush mountain slope with your hand. Body as if startled snake, as if it was on fire, like a dragon throwing thunders andflying away, muscles are pulsating, force like gun powder, hands like bullets, slight body movement and bird will not be able to fly away, you are full of great courage. No matter what happens, your mind is like a big fishing net, catching everything, like a dance of the branches of lightening, like scales covering body of a fish, like snow andfrost on grass and trees ".
You will start shi li exercises from very simple movements. Thanks to this simplicity it will be easy to focus on the essence of exercise, not losing the important feeling, thanks to which the mind and body coordination is achieved. You will gradually learn next movements, from simple ones to more difficult, from straight line to rotation and spirals. You will do shi li movements together with mocabu steps. First you will repeat single movements, then you will link them in a kind of improvised form, with order of movements changing each time. After some time, when your understand the principles, you will move beyond standard form of movements, improvising without losing the essence.
In zhan zhuang you will start from calmly controlling the feeling of strength, then you will „seek movement in non movement". In shi li you will start seeking "changes", at each moment of movement being ready to stop, to change direction or change to completely different movement. Then there will also be being ready to change speed of movement and "issue force" in explosive way. Some of these changes will actually happen. But even if they don't happen, at each point of movement there is this state of alertness, of being ready to act according to situation, which could potentially change.
If you don't stop at the stage of learning only basics of yiquan (the zhan zhuang qigong), but you will continue your study, you learn principles of dynamic, explosive "issuing force" - fa li, principles of adapting your actions in interaction with partner in tui shou (pushing hands), and if you are physically fit and you are interested in this aspect, you can also practice free fighting - san shou, learning to act in critical situation, which is creating the biggest challenge.
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