Resting heart rate

Age or fitness level

Beats per minute (bpm)

Babies to age 1:

100-160

Children ages 1 to 10:

60-140

Children age 10+ and adults:

60-100

Well-conditioned athletes:

40-60

As we can see on the previous table, after adequate physical training the contraction ability of cardiac muscles may be improved so that pulse rate may decrease to 60 bpm, the lowest rates being around 45 to 50 bpm.

In fact the enhancement goes beyond the cardiac muscles, the number and size of your blood vessels actually increase, and you step up your lung capacity and respiratory rate, and your heart increases in size and strength so you can exercise longer before becoming fatigued. When you exercise, have a fever, digest, resist to hot weather, or are under stress your heart rate usually speeds up to meet your body's increased need for oxygen and nutrients carried in the blood. As a result, your pulse rate normally varies from minute to minute. However through regular training with exercises such as ZZ your HR will be lower than if you were not trained.

The type of posture will also influence your HR, at rest, the lying position will have the lowest HR, it will be higher is sitting position and even more in standing position. If you add muscle exercise your HR can reach very high values.

In normal situtation HR in lying position should be 1 to to bpm less then HR in standing position. If this difference is above 20 bpm then the patient has a quite weak heart.

Heart rate recovery after exercise

Heart rate recovery after physical exercise gives precise indication of your health. In US, scientific researches demonstrated that a delayed decrease in the heart rate during the first minute after graded exercise is a powerful predictor of overall mortality. For healthy people, once reached their maximum point of exhaustion, then after one minute resting, the HR should fall by at least 20 bpm. People with an abnormal heart rate recovery, the heart rate only falls by a little bit during that first minute after exercise.

Rapid acceleration of heart rate after violent exercise After violent physical exercises, the increase of pulse rate is very obvious. For example: just after a well conditioned athlete has performed a 100 meter sprint which should take less than 10 seconds to complete running in more ten seconds time, HR should peak between 150 to 200 bpm, then he would need around 40-50 minutes to recover completely. After 400/800-meter middle distance races, HR peaks at 180 to 200 bpm, requiring one to two hours for recovery. For people with weak body or patients, walking faster or longer, climbing stairs, all these violent exercises will produce acceleration of HR, flustration and wheeziness, within a much shorter time then healthy people.

Zhan zhuang & Heart rate

Post standing can strengthen cardiac muscles. Under selective and regular practice of ZZ, resting HR will decrease and improve the heart blood vessels system.

An important advantage of ZZ exercise is to prevent weak, old or sick people from to violent acceleration of HR during and after the exercise: this method is from this point of view the most ideal one for such people.

Now let's discuss about how RR and HR are related to ZZ

1. Comparison of RR & HR: before and after ZZ

Our research was held with a group of four patients. We used a height measuring scale to adjust precisely bending angles to be respected during ZZ exercises. These patients were requested to stand every day, during 40 mn. Each time their RR and HR were reported.

All results are reported in Figure 2-1.

Figure 2-1: ZZ Experimentation - Evolution of RR and HR

Figure 2-1: ZZ Experimentation - Evolution of RR and HR

Zhan Zhuang Gong
Zhan zhuang exercise Resting

In Figure 2-1, we present the average value of the four patients. Three bending angle where selected, 1st and 2nd angles were 3 cm and the third angle 5 cm.

Between each session (angle): they trained continuously during 15 days.

The posture imposed during this experimentation was a standing position with lifting/holding posture for upper limbs. We used a stadiometer (height measurement rod) to fix each patient's bending angle.

For example 3 cm bending angle will request the patient to stand at three cm less high then in normal standing. Generally in the beginning, patients are even lower then the head piece (one or two cm below it), but after 5 to 10 mn as their two legs are progressively tired, patients tend to straighten again their knee: then their head is touching the stadiometer's head piece. But as the head piece is fixed by a lock knob, patients are maintained under this height.

Average Heart Rate increase in 1st bending angle As we can see from the results, after a period of training, Heart Rate, will no more accelerate as in the beginning: In Zhan Zhuang exercise, Heart Rate will have an increase of 7 (seven) Bpm after 10 mn practice, then 5mn later it will jump only 3bpm more and finally after 40 mn total standing, it will reach 107 bpm.

These results show that in ZZ training, the practitioner will work with a progressive increase of HR, and the relative increase can be maintained during a long time. HR is directly related to the legs bending angle and the duration of exercising. In other words the more you increase bending angle or time of training, the more your HR will jump up.

Average Respiration Rate in 1st bending angle

RR is increasing gradually as HR in the starting phase.

The initial RR is 20 Bpm. After 40 mn of ZZ exercise RR

reaches 31 Bpm, totaling an increase of 11 Bpm.

This increase is mainly due to the complete inexistence of practice in this unusual posture: all muscles of shoulders, back, chest, etc.cannot relaxed sufficiently, thorax cannot also expand sufficiently, so that Pulmonary Ventilation is still not enough, as a result your RR is increasing.

At that time breathing becomes shallow, fast, thick and substantial.

Results of 2nd bending angle

After half month of ZZ practice, results of this experimentation show an average initial HR dropping down to 69 Bpm with is 6 Bpm less than the initial HR of the 1st bending angle. After 35 mn of practice HR reaches its peak at 90 bpm, totaling 22 bpm more than resting HR. RR reaches 22 Bpm which only 4 Bpm above the resting RR.

Comparing 1st and 2nd bending angle results

By comparing results of 1st and 2nd bending angle, it is obvious that in the 2nd bending angle HR and RR have decreased: these are the results of 15 days of ZZ practice allowing an obvious improvement in the circulation system and respiratory system.

The resting values of RR and HR have all fallen from 5 Bpm between these two measurement campaigns.

Results of 3rd bending angle

After additional 15 days of training, we colleted results of experimentation which show an increase of physical effort. In fact the third bending angle of two legs was set up at 5 cm instead of 3 cm as it was for the 1st and 2nd bending angle. Heart rate: after 40 mn, HR reaches 94 Bpm which is 22 Bpm increase compared with the resting HR and % Bpm increase compared with the 2nd bending angle.

Respiratory rate: after 20 mn, RR reaches 21 Bpm which just one Bpm more than in resting RR. We can also check that later there is no more increase but rather decrease of RR. In addition we noticed also that after ZZ exercise, just stopping 5 mn will demonstrate improvement of pulse and breathing:

- new resting HR is 4 Bpm less then initial resting HR,

- new resting RR is 2 Bpm less then initial resting RR, When this new resting value of HR and RR is the same whether you are resting after 20 mn or 5 mn, you can conclude that the physical condition of patients has reached an important and durable improvement.

2. Concerning HR change each 10 second period Any conventional sport brings to suffocation and lack of oxygen, after strenuous physical training, blood previously contained in external veins of thorax is rushing very fast, with a high pressure, to right atrium, as a result during this short transition right atrium may be submitted to a substantial enlargement.

During the first minute after strenuous physical training, you will notice a large difference between HR taking the 1st period of 10 seconds with the 6th (and last) period of 10 seconds, this can reach even 10 beats.

So this important difference is not bearable to the average physical condition and is even worse for patients

According Chuan Tao's « Medical treatment with physical training} , here are some data on number of heart beats during period of 10 seconds after strenuous physical effort, in Table 2-4.

Table 2-4

Heart beats before and after physical exercise every 10 seconds period

Table 2-4

Heart beats before and after physical exercise every 10 seconds period

Period (10 seconds)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Total rate (bpm)

Pulse before exercise (beat)

12

12

12

12

12

12

72

Pulse after exercise (beat)

22

18

20

15

13

12

100

According to Table 2-4, after physical exertion, during the first 10 second period, we can count 22 beats, then it will reduce gradually, so that at the sixth 10 second we can only count 12 beats, as a result the total Heart rate during this first minute after exercise, although accounting 100 Bpm, but in fact reveals a difference of 10 beats between these two 10 second periods.

In fact this indicates us that referring Heart rate to the "number of beats per minute" is not sufficient to completely understand the real loading of your pulse: For example the first 10 second period will rather indicate an average rate of (22 x 6 = 132) or the first 20 second period will correspond to an average rate of (40 x 3 = 120).

10 second periods after Squatting exercise Here are the results of an experiment on squatting exercise requesting a fixed number of descending/ascending within a fixed period of time (30s, 1 mn, 2 mn) - Table 2-5

Table 2-5 Heart rate changes after squatting, descending/ascending exercises

Period (10 s)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Total rate (bpm)

Pulse (beats) —- „^

Resting pulse

12

12

12

12

12

12

72

After 30 s. squatting, descending/ascending 20 times

20

19

17

16

15

14

101

After 1 mn squatting, descending/ascending 40 times

22

22

19

19

17

17

116

After 2 mn squatting, descending/ascending 80 times

28

26

24

22

20

19

139

From results of Table 2-5, after 30 s. squatting, descending/ascending 20 times, the first 10 second period counts 20 beats which is 8 beats more then in resting conditions and in the sixth 10 second period, it reaches 14 beats which is comparatively 6 beats less then the 1st period. After 1 mn squatting, descending/ascending 40 times, the 1st and 2nd 10 second period show a same rate: 22 beats then this rate is gradually decreasing up to 17 beats at the 6th period.

After 2 mn squatting, descending/ascending 80 times here there is an obvious increase compared to the two previous campaigns. 1st period has 28 beats, then decrease gradually to 19 beats, which is a resulting HR of 139 bpm and 9 beats difference between 1st and 6th period.

This shows that in this case the amount of physical effort is more important so that it requires a larger time for the body to recover.

10 second periods after Zhan zhuang

In Table 2-6 are presented 10 second periods campaigns after Zhan Zhuang practice, all pulse measurements were tracked electronic devices for automated campaigns.

List 2-6 10 second periods HR changes before and after Zhan Zhuang (ZZ)

Periods (10 s)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Resulting HR

Pulse (beat)

(Bpm)

Resting sitting posture before ZZ

13

13

12

12

13

12

75

First

After 10 minutes ZZ

18

18

18

17

17

18

106

campaign

After 20 minutes ZZ

17

18

17

18

17

17

104

After 30 minutes ZZ

17

18

18

17

17

16

103

Resting sitting posture after ZZ

16

16

16

16

16

16

96

Resting sitting posture before ZZ

13

12

12

13

13

13

76

Second

After 10 minutes ZZ

20

19

19

19

19

19

115

campaign

After 20 minutes ZZ

21

20

20

19

19

19

118

After 30 minutes ZZ

19

19

19

20

19

20

116

Resting sitting posture after ZZ

17

17

17

17

17

17

102

According to Table 2-6, during ZZ each 10 second period within one minute does not present significant difference with another (max difference: 2 Bpm), especially just after exercising where each 10 second period has the same HR throughout the first minute.

This is certainly not possible to obtain in normal physical training with equivalent effort but where suffocation and lack of oxygen would already lead you to exponential increase of HR.

Example: In second campaign after ZZ training for each interval of 10s, HR stays constant to 17 seconds and during ZZ: HR reaches 118 Bpm but only with a max difference between each 10 second period of 2 Bpm.

This is the most important advantage in healing training of ZZ. This also confirms it as a safe physical exercise for patients suffering from serious diseases such as coronary diseases, etc.. .and for older generations.

3. HR changes according to different postures

3.1 HR changes for different sitting positions

Table 2-7 presents the results of HR experimentation with three forms of sitting posture performed by a same individual.

Table 2-7 HR changes according to different sitting postures

Sitting postures ---

HR in sitting post

ZZ training (mn)

10

20

30

1st form: vertical tibias

70

74

72

70

2nd form: both hands lifting/embracing

68

76

76

74

3rd form: both hands & feet hooking/lifting

72

88

80

82

1st sitting form: straight tibias

Let's review results of table 2-7: in vertical tibias sitting form after 10 mn practice HR shows an increase of 4 beats compared with the resting HR, which is almost an insignificant change.

This sitting exercise of ZZ requires a minimum physical effort: keep spine erected while four limbs are not working significantly.

This can be a good starting posture for patients and old Copyright© 2006. China Martial Arts Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 89

practitioners, HR may present some changes but for any healthy practitioner this posture will not provide important results.

2nd sitting form: hands lifting/embracing This forms requires both hands to assume lifting and holding posture, this will require additional amount of physical effort, as a result HR is slightly increasing compared with 1st form (straight tibias sitting posture), in the best conditions it may increase HR with 8 beats.

3rd sitting form: hands & feet lifting and hooking In this sitting form as both hands and both legs are lifting and hanging, the amount of physical effort is much increased than in 1st and 2nd form, after 10 minute practice, HR reaches 88 Bpm which is an increase of 16 Bpm than the initial resting rate before ZZ exercise. Once you get tired you can lower your legs and in the same time your HR will decrease.

Generally speaking sitting posts are involving relatively small amounts of power so that they cannot much bring benefits to healthy and athletic bodies but still are valuable exercises for patients and old people.

3.2 HR changes for different standing postures In this experimentation two legs bending angle have been fixed with stadiometer (height measurement rod), fixing training angle to 4 cm (below normal standing height), are presented all HR with various hands postures - Table 2-8.

Table 2-8 HR changes according to different standing postures

HR (Bpm) \Time (mn)

Sitting

During

ZZ

Standing

Sitting

Sitting

Resting

exercise after

resting

resting

resting

HR

10

20

30

HR (mn)

HR (mn)

HR (mn)

Standing postures ' ——

(before)

mn

mn

mn

(after 0)

(after 0)

(after 10)

Relaxed shoulder lifting-embracing

74

84

90

85

/

73

71

Front chest supporting-pulling

71

95

92

94

/

71

67

Wrapping expanding

70

86

91

94

83

/

71

Separating water forward/backward

71

91

94

95

84

/

70

According to Table 2-8, in Relaxed shoulder lifting and embracing standing form, the amount of physical effort is relatively small: after 20 mn of practice to 20 minutes: HR reaches to 90 Bpm which is an increase of 16 Bpm compared with previous resting HR.

Front chest supporting and pulling standing form is the one which induces the highest increase, HR remaining between 92-95 from the beginning to the end of the exercise, inducing 24 Bpm max compared with the resting HR, and an average of 8 Bpm compared with Relaxed shoulder form.

This indicates us that within a same leg posture, but with different hand posture, in this case with angle in armpits: upper limbs amount of physical effort is bigger so that HR is higher. In addition we can notice that after 30 mn practice in both standing forms and immediate sitting resting, HR returns to the initial resting values.

Wrapping expanding standing form is not much different from Separating water forward/backward or from Front chest supporting pulling in terms of HR rate changes.

Once you are terminating these two last forms (Wrapping and Separating): just drop down your hands, straighten your legs (no more bending angle), then you will notice that HR decreases down with 11 Bpm less than 30 mn training rates.

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Responses

  • Maxima
    Why is heart rate higher when standing for 5 minutes resting?
    9 years ago
  • preston thompson
    What is the value of HR in a normal resting heart?
    9 years ago
  • Antje
    What if heart rate stays the same after 25 exercise?
    9 years ago
  • Anselmo
    What is the resting then standing difference?
    9 years ago
  • Regina
    Can zhan zhuang improve running?
    8 years ago
  • largo
    How zhan zhuang strengthen heart?
    4 years ago

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